General Instructions

201. Responsibility of Engineering Officials- The Engineering officials shall devote careful and continous attention towards the efficient upkeep of the permanent way and the achievement of good and smooth running road.

The running qualities of track should be adjudged by riding as frequently as possible on the locomotives or in the rear vehicles of fast trains on the section. Such inspection should be carried out by the Permanent Way Inspectors, the Assistant Engineers, and the Divisional Engineer. Where track geometry is recorded at regular intervals the Divisional Engineer, the Assistant Engineer, and the Permanent Way Inspector should accompany such runs.

The conditions of the track is best judged by track recording cars, oscillograph cars, portable accelerometers, Hallade track recorders, etc. Full use should be made of the records of such runs. Bad spots should immediately be attended to. The Permanent Way Inspector should strive to achieve excellence against each of the parameters recorded by these cars, consistent with the maintainability of the track.

The reports from drivers regarding oscillations or lurching of engines should be promptly investigated and track attended at the kilometerage concerned.

The Assistant Engineers and their Divisional Engineers should maintain records of the results of their inspections either in the form of a notebook or a file and should ensure the compliance of instructions by the inspectors within a reasonable time. These records should be examined by the Headquarters officers during their inspections.

202. Classification of Lines -

(1) Broad Gauge - The B G lines have been classified into five groups 'A' 'to' E on the basis of the future maximum permissible speeds as under - (Advance Correction Slip No. 98) and
(Advance Correction Slip No. 109 )(Advance Correction Slip No. 133 )

Group 'A' - Speeds upto 160 km./hour:

(i) New Delhi to Howrah- Rajdhani Route (via the Grand Chord and Howrah-Burdhwan Chord), 

(ii) New Delhi to Bombay Central (Frontier Mail Route), 

(iii) New Delhi To Madras Central (Grand Trunk Route), 

(iv) Howrah- Nagpur- Bombay V.T.

Group 'B' — Speeds upto 130 k.m./hour:

(i) Allahabad-Katni-Jabalpur- Itarsi- Bhusaval.

(ii) Kalyan - Pune - Daund - Wadi -Secunderabad- Kazipet. 

(iii) Kharagpur- Waltair- Vijayawada. 

(iv) Wadi- Raich ur-Arakkonam-Madras Central.

(v) Howrah-Bandel-Barddhaman. 

(vi) Khanna- Barharwa- Farakka Bridge-Malda Town, 

(vii) Sitarampur-Madhupur-Kiul-Patna- Mughal Sarai.

(viii) Kiul- Bhagalpur- Sahibganj- Barharwa. 

(ix) Delhi- Panipet- Ambala Cantt- Kalka. 

(x) Ambala Cantt.- Ludhiana- Pathankot. 

(xi) Ambala Cantt.- Moradabad- Lucknow-Pratapgarh- Mughul Sarai 

(xii) Arakkonam- Jolarpettai- Salem- Erode-Coimbatore-Ernakulam. 

(xiii) Vadodara- Ahmedabad. 

(xiv) Jolarpettai- Bangalore. 

(xv) Ah medabad-Ajmer-Jaipur-Ban dikui-Rewari-Delhi.

(xvi) Malda Town-Barsoi-New Jalpaiguri. 

(xvii) Chennai beach-Dindigul. 

(xviii) Bangalore-Dharmavaram-Gooty.

Annexure 2/1 shows, Group 'A' And 'B' Routes 

Group 'C - Suburban Sections Of Bombay,
Delhi, and Calcutta

Group 'D' - Sections where the sanctioned
speed is 100km./hr. at present.

Group 'E' - Sectional and branch line with the
present sanctioned speed, less than 100km./hr.

Group 'D Spl'- Sections where the traffic density is very high or likely to grow substantially in future and the sanctioned speed is 100 Km/h at present. The following routes will fall under this category:-

(i) Kharagpur-Midnapur-Adra

(ii) Barkakana-Barwadih-Garwa Road

(iii) Tundla-Yamuna Bridge

(iv) Bolangir-Titlagarh

(v) Gudur-Renigunta

(vi) Anara-Chandil-Kandra-Sini

(vii) Anuppur-Shahdol-Katni-Bina

(viii) Ahmedabad-Viramgam

(ix) Nagda-Ujjain-Maksi-Bhopal

(x) Lucknow-Sultanpur-Zaffarabad-Banaras

(xi) Delhi-Ghaziabad-Hapur-Moradabad

(xii) Lucknow-Kanpur

(xiii) Chapra-Hajipur-Barauni

(xiv) RSD-Titlagarh-Vizianagaram

(xv) Guntakal-Tornagallu

(xvi) Udhna-Nandurbar-Jalgaon

Group 'E Spl' - Sections where traffic density is very high or likely to grow substantially in future and present sanctioned speed is less than 100 Km/h, the following routes will fall under this category:

(i) Garwa Road-Sonnagar

(ii) Tornagallu-Hospet

(iii) Panskura-Haldia

(iv) Talcher-Rajatgarh-Salegaon-Nergundi

(v) Cuttack-Paradeep

(vi) Radhakishorepur-Rajathgarh-Barang

(vii) Kapilas Road-Salegaon

(viii) Radhakishorepur-Machapur

(ix) Kirandul-Koraput

(x) Rajakharshwan-Dongaposi-Padapahar Barajamda-Gua 

(xi) Bondamunda-Bimlagarh-Barsuan Kiriburu

(xii) Kandra-Gamharria 

(xiii) Champa-Gevra Road 

(xiv) Marauda-Dallirajhara 

(xv) Urkura-Sarona 

(xvi) Bhojudih-Mohuda G-C 

(xvii) Chandil-Muri-Bokaro-Rajbera 

(xviii) Diwa-Vasai Road 

(xix) Padapahar-Banspani 

(xx) Jharsuguda-Sambalpur-Bolangir 

(xxi) Barajamda-Bolanikhandan 

(xxii) Muri-Barkakana 

(xxiii) Talgoria-Bokaro City 

(xxiv) Kota-Ruthiyai

(2) The M.G. lines have been classified into three categories based on the speed potential and traffic density in the section as under -

(a) 'Q' routes.— The 'Q' routes consist of the routes where the' maximum permissible speed will be more than 75 km.p.h. The traffic density is generally more than 2.5 G.M.T. the following routes will fall under category 'Q' :-

(i) Delhi-Sarairohilla-Rewari-Ratangarh

(ii) Rewari-Ringus-Phulera

(iii) Ratangarh-Degana

(iv) Ajmer-Ratlam-Khandwa

(v) Jaipur-Phulera-Ajmer

(vi) Bandikui-Agra Fort

(vii) Ahmedabad-Bhavnagar


(ix) Bhojipura-Lucknow

(x) Villupuram-Thanjavur-Tiruchchirappalli.

(xi) Chennai Beach-Villupuram.

(xii) Dindigul-Madurai.

(b) 'R' routes —These routes will have a speed potential of 75 km.p.h. And the traffic density is more than 1.5 G.M.T. 'R' routes are further classified into three categories as follows depending upon the volume of traffic carried:-

(i) R-1 : when the traffic density is more than 5 G.M.T.

(ii) R-2 : when traffic density is between 2.5 to 5 G.M.T.

(iii) R-3 : when traffic density is between 1.5 to 2.5 G.M.T.

R-1 route:

(i) Gandhidham-Palanpur

R-2 route:

(i) Secunderabad-Mudkhed 

(ii) Guntakal-Bellary

(iii) Guntakal-Villupuram 

(iv) Tiruchchirappalli-Manamadurai-Virudunagar

R-3 route:

(i) Madurai-Rameswaram 

(ii) Virudunagar-Tenkasi 

(iii) Dindigul-Pollachi 

(iv) Ratangarh-Bikaner

Note : The following two routes also carry a traffic density of more than 5 G.M.T :

(i) Katihar-New Bongai Gaon 

(ii) Gauhati-Tinsukia

These have not been included in R1 routes as they are slated for conversion.

(c) S' Routes — These will be the routes where the speed potential is less than 75 km.p.h. and the traffic density is less than 1.5 G.M.T.

Annexure 2/2 shows the 'Q' routes.

203. Sytems of Track Maintenance - (1) System to be adopted- The track should be maintained either by conventional system of track maintenance or by 3-tier system of track maintenance.

(2) Details Of Maintenance Works- (a) In both the systems, track requires to be overhauled periodically with the object of restoring it to best possible condition, consistent with its maintainability. Periodicity of overhauling depends on several factors, such as type of track structure, its age, volume of traffic, rate of track deterioration, maximum permissible speed, system of traction, condition of formation etc. Irrespective of the system of track maintenance adopted, it is obligatory to overhaul specified lengths of gang beat annually. The length of the section to be overhauled shall be such that complete overhauling of track will be accomplished within a specific period (normally 3 to 5 years).

(b) Immediately after cessation of monsoon, the run down lengths should be quickly attended to, to restore the section to good shape. After this is done overhauling/through packing of track should be taken in hand. After completion of one cycle of systematic through maintenance, track should be attended to wherever required.

(c) In any system of maintenance it is necessary to allot certain number of days in a week for 'picking up slacks' to ensure that whole gang length is in safe condition for passage of trains .

204. Annual Programme of Track Maintenance — The annual programme of regular track maintenance and works incidental thereto shall be based on the programme given as shown below, with such variations to suit local conditions, as may be specified by the Chief Engineer. This applies to any system of maintenance

                                             Annual Programme for Regular Track Maintenances

. Period
1. Post monsoon attention: For about six months after end of monsoon
(a) Attention to run down lengths in the entire gang beat to restore the section to good shape,

(b) One cycle of conventional systematic through packing / systematic directed track maintenance from, one end of the gang length to the others including overhauling of nominated sections as detailed in para203.2. 

(c) Normally 4 to 5 days per week should be allotted for works under item (b) and the remaining days for picking up of slacks, attention to bridge approaches, level crossings and points and crossings over the entire Gang beat. Works such as lubrication of rail joints, joint gap adjustments as required and realignment of curves should be done during this period.

2. Pre monsoon attention for about 2 months prior to break of monsoon.
Normally 2 to 4 days in a week should be devoted to clearing of side and catch water drains, earthwork repairs to cess, clearing water ways and picking up slacks. In the rest of the days normal systematic maintenance will be carried out.
3. Attention during monsoon for about four months Attention to track as required. This will consist primarily of picking up slacks and attention to side and catch water drains and water ways.

During abnormally heavy rains, patrolling of the line by gangs should be carried out in addition to regular monsoon patrolling.

Note :- (1) Scattered renewals, creep adjustments and earth work repairs should be done as necessary.

(2) For maintenance schedule on L W R/C W R, special instructions in the L W R/C W R Manual should in addition be followed.

205. Maintenance Planning - (1) Every Permanent Way Inspector must prepare a perspective maintenance plan of his section one month in advance. The plan should include, apart from normal inspection, inspection of point and crossings, curves and level crossings, realignment of curves, adjustment of creep, deep screening, casual renewal, renewal of points and crossings, welding of joints, destressing of long welded rails etc. so that optimum utilization of time and labour resources is possible. He should also ensure that arrangements are made for adequate materials, tools, labour, man power and necessary caution orders/books, as may be necessary.

(2) For sections nominated for mechanised maintenance, annual plan for deployment of various track machines shall be finalised by CTE(MC)/CTE of the Zonal Railway and he shall arrange to deploy the machines accordingly.

206. Record of Gang Work - (1) Each Mate should be supplied with a gang chart and a gang diary. In the gang chart, details of track maintenance work done over the gang length, on a day-to-day basis shall be recorded by the Permanent Way Inspepctor, according to extant instructions. The work set to the gang should also be indicated in the gang chart by suitable notations. A typical gang chart is enclosed as Annexure 2/3. In the gang diary supplied to each gang, weekly programme of work should be entered by the Permanent Way Inspector. At the end of the week, the Inspector should carry out a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the work done during the week after thorough inspection and make suitable observations in the gang diary. Each gang chart/diary should be adequate for recording the work during the complete year. Temporary gangs employed in work allied to track maintenance, should also be supplied with gang diary, wherein the details of the work set and the work carried out will be entered by the Permanent Way Inspector. Details of maintenance work carried out by these gangs should be entered in the gang chart of respective permanent gang.

(2) Gang charts/diaries should be checked by the Assistant Engineers and Divisional Engineers during their inspections. They should record their observation in the gang diary.

(3) On withdrawal of gang chart/diary and supply of fresh ones, the Permanent Way Inspector should carefully analyse the work done and take notes of kilometerages that frequently gave trouble during the previous year, with a view to formulating such special measures as may be necessary. Action may be taken to preserve the gang charts for a period of three years.
(Advance Correction Slip No. 114 )

(4) Maintenance attention given to the signalled loop lines and turnouts should be recorded on the chart.

(5) Whenever the gang equipments are checked by PWIs, the same should be recorded in gang chart against the date on which such inspection is done. Inspecting officials should initial against the date on the chart and also make suitable entries in gang diary.

(6) Six months after the end of each year, the gang charts will be collected by the PWIs and maintained as record. Thus, for the overlapping period of six months, the gang will have two gang charts with them. A six months record will, therefore, always be available with the gang for reference. Normally, this record should be kept for at least five years. When a particular kilometer or section is under special observation, the record may be maintained for a longer period at the discretion of RWay officials.

207. Attention To Inspection Notes -

Notes on inspections carried out by officers whether on foot, by push or motor trolley, on foot plate of the locomotive or by rear carriage of fast trains, should be sent to the Permanent Way Inspectors concerned for necessary action. The Permanent Way Inspectors should send compliance reports to the concerned officers within reasonable time.

208. Record of Work of Artisans and Other Workmen Employed - Each artisan/ workman will be supplied with a diary in which entries will be made by the artisan/workman showing his movement by train and the details of daily work performed by him. The Permanent Way Inspector will scrutinise the work during his inspection and make suitable observations in the artisan's/ workman's diary. At the end of the month these diaries will be sent to the Office of the Permanent Way Inspector.

209. Special Reports on the condition of Permanent Way - Special Reports on the state of track in his charge may be submitted by the Permanent Way Inspector as and when he considers it necessary to the Divisional Engineer through the Assistant Engineer.(
Advance Correction Slip No. 99)

In this Report the Permanent Way Inspector shall make candid statement of the defects in the track, reasons for defects and proposals for rectifying them.

The Assistant Engineer should check the track during his usual trolleying and verify the conditions mentioned by the Permanent Way Inspector and also study the proposed remedial actions. Remedial actions as necessary should be ordered within his power or referred to the Divisional Engineer for further orders.

The Divisional Engineer should scrutinize the special reports of the Permanent Way Inspector as forwarded by the Assistant Engineer, with his comments and give his orders thereon to the Permanent Way Inspector through the Assistant Engineer. Orders issued by the Divisional Engineer should be promptly attended to by the Assistant Engineer and Permanent Way Inspector.

Submission of special reports does not absolve the Permanent Way Inspector of his basic responsibility of maintaining the track in fit condition for the load and speed sanctioned for the section.

210. Permanent Way Inspector's Section Register- (1) Each Permanent Way Inspector shall maintain a Section register containing all important information including a brief history of the section. Entries shall be brief and categorised under various sections as indicated below :

(a) Administration -

(i) Change in Permanent Way Inspectors, Permanent Way Mistries and Clerks.

(ii) Change in jurisdiction.

(b) Permanent Way -

(i) Formation - Sections giving frequent trouble with brief history and remedial measures adopted, if any.

(ii) Track structure, method of maintenance, details of particular locations giving frequent trouble and remedial measures adopted if any.

(iii) Details of kilometerages of track laid as short welded panels, long welded rails, continuous welded rails, etc. incidence of buckling, maximum and minimum rail temperatures observed, behaviour of S.E.J. and buffer rails.

(iv) Grades - Regrading done, with brief details of lifting or lowering of track.

(v) Curves - Realignment and/or transitioning of curves.

(vi) Ballast - Kilometerages where there is deficiency of ballast and details of recoupment done. Particulars of deep screening carried out yearwise.

(vii) Creep Adjustment - Details of Creep adjustment done and action taken to reduce creep - Details of Gap survey carried out and adjustment done.

(viii) Permanent Way renewals - Major renewal carried out as relaying, rerailing and resleepering; large scale renewal of track components at a section should also be shown.

(ix) Station yards and sidings - Extension or alteration to sidings, platforms and renewal of points and crossings.

(x) Rail failures - Brief particulars of all types of rail failures, including weld failures should be noted in the section register, connecting references to the failure reports.

(xi) Rail Testing and Renewals - Records of rail testing by Ultrasonic Testing Method - Brief details of all rails removed with reasons for removal. This will form the basis of justification for through rail renewals/ casual renewals.

(xii) Brief particulars of fish-plate failures with details of fish plates and reasons for failure.

(xiii) Lubrication of rail joints : Particulars of work done with dates each year.

(xiv) Material under trial : Brief particulars -Connect reference to notes in the 'Materials-under-trial'register.

(xv) Track recording : summary of the results of the various track recording runs

( c) Bridges and Floods -

(i) Yearly record of rainfall showing month wise distribution

(ii) Important repairs and renewal to bridges, details of extensive repairs to bridges, dismantling and rebuilding bridges, strengthening of girders, renewal of girders, extension of bridges and through renewal of sleepers, should be shown. Ordinary repairs need not be recorded.

(iii) Damage due to floods : Extent of damage with particulars of rainfall, arrangements made for labour and material, time and labour spent for restoration and approximate cost. Cause of damage and notes of remedial measures

(iv) List of Railway affecting Works with brief history.

(v) List of vulnerable locations, where stationary watchmen are to be posted.

(d) Miscellaneous -

(1) Availability of labour on section for works.

(ii) Encroachment and steps taken to remove them.

(iii) Infringement particulars 

(iv) Accidents attributable to Permanent Way with details.

(v) List of reference books available in the section.

(vi) Any other important information necessary.

(2) The entries made in the section registers shall be brought up-to-date from time-to-time and these shall be scrutinised in the beginning of every year by the Assistant Engineer.

211. Permanent Way Plans and Diagrams - (1) The Assistant Engineers shall have in their possession complete sets of the following :

(i) The I.R.S. Track manual or I.R.S. type plans, pertaining to track sections and turnouts extent over their jurisdictions.

(ii) Plans and longitudinal sections of the line, to a scale of 50 meters to 1 cm horizontal (1/5,000) and 5 meters to 1 cm vertical (1/500) and Index Plans and sections to a scale of 0.5 km.S to 1 cm horizontal (1/50,000) and 10 meters to 1 cm vertical (1/1,000) showing the physical features, alignment, grades, location of bridges and level crossings.

The longitudional section of the line shall be updated by surveying the longitudinal profile of the line atleast once in five years. The necessary action for elimination of humps, sags and uneveness or providing vertical curves as provided in Para 419 of IRPWM be taken if the survey reveals variations in grades. Such an action may also become necessary as a result of track works viz. renwal of rail/ sleepers, lifting/lowring of track, bridge works etc.

(iii) Drawing of bridges, level crossings and protective works and yard layouts over their jurisdiction.

(iv) Working drawings or diagrams pertaining to track and components on their sections, issued from time-to-time.

(v) The Permanent Way track diagram of the railway line showing the type of track and fittings when laid, type of ballast, type of formation with classification of soil (to be carried out as per RDSO's Circular No: GE-P1-May 2003), blanket thickness, type of formation trouble (if any) and indication of how the railway boundary is demarcated. Change points in the track diagram shall be indicated correct to the nearest meter (details as in Annexure 2/4).

(vi) The Permanent Way diagrams of station yards showing complete dimension of running lines, sidings, type of track and turnouts. (Details as per Annexure 2/5).

(2) The Permanent Way Inspectors shall have in their possession complete sets of drawings and diagrams mentioned in item (i) and (iv) to (vi) pertaining to their jurisdictions ; he shall have in his possession the land plans pertaining to his jurisdictions covering those between stations and unimportant station yards.

(3) Plans pertaining to their jurisdictions shall be maintained up-to-date by the Assistant Engineer and Permanent Way Inspector.

212. Records of Material Under Trial -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 99 )

(1) Registers - Registers of materials under trial duly indexed shall be maintained by the Assistant Engineer; Sufficient number of pages being allotted for each item.

(2) Particulars of entries - Particulars regarding each item should be completed in regard to :

(i) Name of material.

(ii) Kilometerage where laid.

(iii) Date of laying.

(iv) Object of trial.

(v) Nature and condition of ballast.

(vi) Nature and type of formation.

(vii) Track details.

(viii) Behaviour.

(ix) Any other relevant information.

In the case of items designed for improved track performance, notes should be made about the extent to which such appliances are producing the desired results, particulars being quoted, whenever possible.

(3) Trial Lengths - Material under trial should, where practicable be laid near Assistant Engineer's headquarters. In the case of sleepers under trial, a special kilometre or kilometres should be utilised for the purpose.

(4) Indication Plates- Material under trial should be indicated by plates of suitable dimensions fixed on the cess at either end of the trial length, the description and number of item, date laid and kilometerage, being shown thus

Reconditioned sleepers

Nos. 1000, January 1980

Km. 72/0-Km. 72/12

(5) Removal of materials under trial- In every case where sleepers or other materials under trial have to be removed because of relaying or alterations, the Asst. Engineer concerned should report to the Divisional Engineer and ask for disposal instructions. When material is removed for any reason, a full note should be made by the Assistant Engineer on its condition after thorough examination. When material under trial is removed and re-laid in another Assistant Engineer's length, the previous history of the material shall be copied in the register of the sub-division where it is now laid.

(6) Submission of Assistant Engineer's Register to Divisional Engineer-The 'Materials under trial' register should be submitted by the Assistant engineer to the Divisional Engineer as often as required. The Divisional Engineer will submit reports on trials carried out to the Chief Engineer, as may be required.

(7) Permanent Way Inspector's Records-The Permanent Way Inspector shall maintain in manuscript form a record of all materials under trial on his length with necessary particulars. Notes should be made therein at regular intervals. The Assistant Engineer shall scrutinize the records during his inspections.

(8) The Divisional Engineer should take interest in the trials in progress in his jurisdiction and ensure that the stretch where such material is laid, is maintained to the desired standard.

213. Strength of Gangs - The strength of each maintenance gang shall be decided by the Chief Engineer. A register should be maintained by each Permanent Way Inspector and in the Office of the Divisional Engineer and Assistant Engineers having the sanctioned strengths of gangs, Gatemen, Watchmen, Lookoutmen, Trolleymen and other staff. No deviation from the sanctioned strength of gangs and other staff shall be permitted without the approval of the Chief Engineer.

214. Musters - (1) The attendance of the Permanent Way staff and artisans and others shall be checked by the Inspector under whom the staff are employed according to such instructions as issued by the Administration.

(2) No over-writing in the muster sheet should be permitted. Corrections should be attested and initialled by the Inspector.

(3) Separate musters should be allotted and issued to each batch of workmen such as Gangmen, Gatemen, Trollymen and Artisans. Muster sheet should be kept by the head of each batch and at the site of work for checking attendance by the Inspector concerned. The muster sheet of trollymen and office staff should be kept and maintained in the office concerned.

(4) For each wage period, the muster sheet should be collected and fresh ones issued. Before commencement of a month, the Assistant Engineer should issue requisite number of blank muster sheet forms to each Inspector for the purpose of recording the attendance. Each blank muster sheet before issue, must be initialled on the top by Assistant Engineer, as a token of its authenticity.

(5) The leave availed by each employee should be recorded in the leave register debiting this leave to his account before the musters are dispatched to the Divisional Engineer's office.

(6) The Assistant Engineer should check the musters of all the staff on their sub- division and initial the muster sheet at least once a month during his inspection.

215. Custody Of Gang Tools - For the safe custody of gang tools, boxes should be provided at appropriate locations with proper locking arrangements. They may be provided near gang quarters, gate lodges or in stations. The Gangmate shall ensure that all tools are deposited in the tool box after working hours and kept locked.

Gangmen should not leave any tool unprotected during the course of working or during mid-day-break.

216. Section Limit Boards - (1)Boards at jurisdictional limits should be provided thus:

(a) End of Divisions:


(b) End of Sub-Divisions:


(c) End of Sections:


(d) End of Gang lengths:

G-3 G-4
1+1+14 1+1+13

(2) If the gang beat ends in a curve the beat should be so adjusted that the entire curve lies in one of the beats. Similarly in case of yards gang beats should be so adjusted that the yard is maintained as far as possible by one gang, exception being in the case of big yards where the yard may have to be maintained by more than one gang.

(3) Suitable boards should also be provided indicating the state and district boundaries.

(4) When a board has to be located at an exact kilometre, it should be fixed by the side of the kilometre post.

(5) The boards which may be of scrap iron or R.C.C. should throughout a division be fixed on the cess on the same side of the line. The letters and figures should be painted black on white background.

217. Kilometre and Gradient Posts - 

These may preferably be of R.C.C. of suitable dimensions and fixed at right angles to the track on the cess so as to be distinctly visible. The figures, arrows and letters should be painted in black on a white background.

218. Telegraph Pole Numbers - (1) Kilometrages should be indicated on one line of telegraph poles either by painting or providing number plates thereon.

(2) Where single plates are provided, they should be fixed at 45 degrees to the track and face alternatively in the up and down directions. Where one piece angle type plates are provided, they should be fixed so that either face is at 45 degrees to the track. Figures should be painted in black on white background.

(3) In deep-cuttings or tunnels, telegraph pole numbers should be repeated at cess-level.

(4) On double line section where one line is located away from the line along which the telegraph poles are provided and from where the figures on the telegraph poles cannot be easily read, additional rail posts should be provided along the other line which should indicate the corresponding telegraph pole numbers.

(5) On electrified sections the kilometrage is indicated on the structure posts. The responsibility of providing number plates or painting kilometrage on the Electric structure devolves on the Electrical Department.

219. Verification of Land Boundaries: (1) Every Railway Administration is responsible for the demarcation and periodical verification of the boundaries and the maintenance of proper records in connection therewith of all land in the possession of that Railway (Para 1048 - E).

(2) The Permanent Way Inspector is responsible for maintaining the railway land boundaries between stations and at unimportant stations. The unimportant stations where the land boundaries are to be maintained by the Permanent Way Inspector should be specified by the administration.

(3) The Permanent Way Inspector is responsible for reporting any encroachment that may occur as soon as they are noticed, to the Assistant Engineer who will on receipt of such report initiate measures to remove the encroachments.

(4) The Permanent Way Inspector shall submit, by the prescribed date every year, a certificate to the Assistant Engineer, copy endorsed to the Divisional Engineer for information, in the following form:

I certify that I have inspected the railway land boundaries on my section during the year ending... ......and that they are in accordance with the land plans. There have been no encroachments except at the following kilometres that have been reported by me vide reference given against each. I further certify that missing boundary stones at the kilometrages shown below have been replaced.

No                 Date:

Permanent Way Inspector

(5) During his inspection the Assistant Engineer shall ensure that railway boundaries are demarcated correctly and that there are no encroachments. In cases where he cannot prevail on the parties to remove the encroachments, he must report the facts with particulars to the Divisional Engineer who will take up the matter with the Local Authorities.

220. Trolly Refuges -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 116 )(1) Trolly refuges in cuttings should be provided as necessary at suitable intervals.

(2) Trolly refuges should be provided on high banks particularly on approaches of important bridges.

(3) On double line these should be staggered, alternate trolly refuges being on up and down sides respectively. The space between the track should be filled with ballast and levelled up to the rail level for easy off-tracking of the trollys opposite to the trolly refuges.
(Advance Correction Slip No. 119 )

(4) Maximum distance apart of Trolly refuges on bridges will be as under :-

(i) On bridges with main spans of less than 100 metres - 100 metres.

(ii) On bridges with main spans of 100 metres or more - A refuge over each pier.

(iii) On ballasted deck Bridges - 50 metres.

(5) In the case of tunnels, the maximum distance apart of trolly refuges shall not exceed 100 metres.

For easy identification of the location of trolly refuges in tunnels and deep cuttings a distinguishing mark such as a rail post, painted with luminous paint with a mark 'R' may be erected by the side of the trolly refuge.

221. Standard Dimensions - (1) Infringement: The Permanent Way Inspector should refer any work resulting in infringement of standard dimension to the Assistant Engineer for instructions. Work involving permanent infringement should be referred to the Railway Board for sanction through the Commissioner of Railway Safety.

Permanent way staff shall be on the alert to prevent occurrence of:

(i) 'Slacks' in platform line causing the platform heights to exceed the standard dimension.

(ii) Errors in alignment causing the minimum distance to adjacent structures infringed, for example, platform coping, water columns, overbridges, O.H.E. structures.

(iii) Excessive lifting of the track , causing minimum height to overhead structure to be infringed, for example, underside of overbridge, roofs of tunnels, overhead contact wires.

(2) Verification and preparation of yearly statements of infringements: Once a year, the standard dimensions over their sections shall be verified personally by the Permanent Way Inspector according to the profiles shown in the schedule of dimensions and statements of infringements, if any, submitted to the Assistant Engineer by the end of March. The Assistant Engineer after scrutiny should forward these to the Divisional Engineer.

The statement shall briefly indicate against each infringement the reasons for its continuance together with reference to the sanction of Railway Board/ Commissioner of Railway Safety. The Divisional Engineer after scrutinising the yearly returns will issue necessary instructions to the Assistant Engineer. Important items should be referred to the Chief Engineer.

222. Felling of trees obstructing view -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 111) Trees and bushes that interfere or tend to interfere with the view from a train or trolly, of signals or level crossings or along the inside of curves, shall be cut. When cut, it should be ensured that they do not foul the track.

When trees and bushes require to be cut in terms of sub-para above, on private lands, action should be taken as laid down in Section 15 of the Indian Railways Act reproduced below :

"15. (1) In either of the following cases, namely:

(a) Where there is danger that a tree standing near a Railway may fall on the railway so as to obstruct traffic, and

(b) When a tree obstructs the view of any fixed signals, the Railway administration may, with the permission of any Magistrate, fell the tree or deal with it in such other manner as will, in the opinion of the Railway administration avert the danger or remove the obstruction, as the case may be.

(2) In case of emergency the power mentioned in sub-section (1) may be exercised by a railway administration without the permission of a Magistrate.

(3) Where a tree felled or otherwise dealt with under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) was in existence before the railway was constructed or the signal was fixed, any Magistrate may, upon the application of the persons interested in the tree, award to those persons such compensation as he thinks reasonable.

(4) Such an award, subject, where made in a presidency town by any Magistrate other than the Chief Presidency Magistrate, or where made elsewhere by any Magistrate other than the District Magistrate, to revision by the Chief Presidency Magistrate or the District Magistrate, as the case may be, shall be final.

(5) A Civil Court shall not entertain a suit to recover compensation for any tree felled or otherwise dealt with under this section."

(Advance Correction Slip No. 132 ) Side drains. Catch water drains and Water-ways -The Permanent Way staff shall keep all side drains and catch water drains clear. They should ensure that the outfalls of these drains and the water-ways of all Bridges and Culverts are kept free from obstruction. The spoils from cleaning drains or cuttings should not be deposited at a place from where it is likely to be washed back into the drains.







Regular Track Maintenance

224. Through Packing: Conventional Maintenance By Beater Packing :- (1) General: Through packing shall consist of the following operations in sequence. The length of track opened out on any one day shall not be more than that can be efficiently tackled before the end of the day:

(a) Opening of the road.

(b) Examination of rails, sleepers and fastenings.

(c) Squaring of sleepers.

(d) Slewing of track to correct alignment.

(e) Gauging.

(f) Packing of sleepers.

(g) Repacking of joint sleepers.

(h) Boxing of ballast section and tidying.

Through packing is best done continuously from one end of a gang length towards the other.

(2) Each of the above operations should be carried out as detailed below:- (a) Opening of Road: Ballast should be opened out on either side of the rail seats to the extent shown hereunder to a depth of 50 mm. below the packing surface without disturbing the cores under the sleepers:

(i) Broad Gauge : End of sleepers to 450mm. inside of the rail seat.

(ii) Metre Gauge : End of sleepers to 350mm. inside of the rail seat.

(iii) Narrow Gauge (762mm.): End of sleepers to 250mm. inside of the rail seat.

In case of cast iron plate or pot sleepers, the opening out should be to the extent of the plates or pots to enable packing being done conveniently.

The ballast should be drawn by powrahs/ shovels outwards and inwards i.e., that portion of the ballast on the outside of the rail should be drawn outwards, the portions between the rails being drawn towards the centre, care however, should be taken to see that the ridge between the rails does not project more than 50mm. above rail level.

(b) Examination of Rails, Sleepers and Fastenings - (i) Rails should be examined, the underside for corrosion, the ends for cracks, the head for top and side wear, rail joints for wear on the fishing planes, fish bolts for tightness. If rails on curves wear at an unusually rapid rate, lubrication of the gauge face should be done. Rust and dust must be removed from the corroded rails by using wire bruches; kinks in rails should be removed by jimcrowing.

(ii) Sleepers should be inspected for their condition and soundness particularly at the rail seats. In case of wooden sleepers, plate screws, spikes and fang-bolts should be examined for their firm grip. Sleepers should be checked for split and decay.

In case of cast iron sleepers, the condition and firmness of cotters and keys should be examined. Loose keys should be tightened by providing liners or replaced by appropriate oversized keys. In the case of wear in the rail seat of CST. 9 plates, suitable pad/saddle plates may be provided. Fastenings and fittings should be examined to ensure that they are in good order, appropriately tightened so that they firmly hold the rails. Broken ones should be replaced immediately.

(c) Squaring of sleepers :- Gauge variations and kinks inevitably result from sleepers getting out of square.

(i) The spacing of sleepers on the sighting rail should first be checked and correctly chalk-marked. Corresponding marks should then be made on the other rail using the square at every point. The core of sleepers that are out-of-square should then be 'picked' with the pick ends of beaters, the fastenings loosened and the sleepers levered and squared to correct position.

(ii) Squaring should be done by planting the crow bars firmly against the sleeper and pushing it. Under no circumstances should sleepers be hammered. Sleepers that are squared should be regauged immediately, the fastenings tightened and repacked.

(d) Slewing of track to correct alignment: -(i) Heavy slewing will only be required during realignment of curves when it will be necessary to loosen the rail, joints and in case of steel sleepers and cast iron sleepers to loosen the fastenings, the packing cores being broken with the pick-ends of beaters. Slewing for normal maintenance will be of a small order and should be done after opening out the road, loosening the cores at ends and drawing out sufficient ballast at the ends of the sleepers.

(ii) Slewing of track shall be directed by the Mate who on straights should sight the rail from a distance of 30 to 60 metres. On curves, he should sight the outer rail. Slewing is best done in the morning unless it is cloudy, as later on, sighting conditions become unfavourable.

When slewing, the crow bars should be planted well into the ballast at an angle not more than 30 degrees from the vertical; otherwise lifting of the track may result.

(e) Gauging:- (i) Preservation of gauge is an important part of track maintenance especially through points and crossings. For good riding, the basic requirement is uniform gauge over a continuous stretch of track and such gauge should be allowed to continue so long as it is within the permissible limits of tightness or slackness.

(ii) Gauging should only be done after ensuring that sleepers are truly square. Standard keying hammers shall always be used. Beaters and heavier hammers should not be used, as this causes overdriving of keys and strained lugs on metal sleepers.

(iii) The track gauge should be held firm with one lug against the base rail, and the other end being swivelled over the opposite rails. The tightest position obtained determines the correct point to test the gauge. The gauge should not be forced as that causes considerable wear on the gauge lug.

(iv) The track gauge should be adjusted to correct gauge on the rail opposite to the base rail. The required slackness on sharp curves should be attained by using liners of the requisite thickness against the lug of the gauge in the case of ordinary track iron gauge.

(v) While it is desirable to maintain correct gauge, where due to age and condition of the sleepers, it is not possible to maintain correct gauge, it is good practice to work within the following tolerances of gauge, provided generally uniform gauge can be maintained over long lengths:
(Advance Correction Slip No. 130 )

Braod Gauge .
a) On straight -6 mm to + 6mm
b) On curves with radius 350 m or more -6 mm to + 15mm
c) On curves with radius less than 350 m upto + 20 mm

Note : These tolerances are with respect to nominal gauge of 1676 mm.

Metre Gauge

a) On straight -3mm to + 6mm
b) On curves with radius of more than 175 metres -3mm to + 15mm
c) On curves with radius less than 175 metres Upto + 20 mm

Note : These tolerances are with respect to nominal gauge of 1000 mm.

Narrow Gauge

a) On straight -3 mm to + 6 mm
b) On curves with radius Less then 290 m -3 mm to + 15 mm
c) On curves with radius Less then 290 m  Upto + 20 mm

Note: The above tolerance are with respect to nominal gauge of 762mm.

(f) Packing of sleepers (i) The aim of packing is to have each sleeper firmly and uniformly packed to ensure that the rails are at their correct relative levels i.e., level on the straight track and to the required cant on curves and that no sleeper has any void between it and its bed.

(ii) Before packing is commenced, it is necessary to ensure that the chairs/bearing plates are firmy fixed to the sleepers and the rails are bearing on the chairs/ bearing plates. In case of rails resting directly on sleepers it should be ensured that there is no gap between the bottom of the rail and top of the sleeper.

(iii) The base rail shall be sighted by the Mate with eye along the lower edge of the head of rail and any dip or low joint lifted correctly. The adjacent sleepers should then be packed and the top checked. After two rail lengths have been attended to, the rail on the other side should be brought to the correct level by checking cross level with the straight edge and spirit level or gauge-cum level at every rail joint and at every fourth sleeper. The next two rail lengths should then be taken up and the process continued.

(iv) No joint or dip should be lifted higher than the proper level in the expectation that it will settle to the correct level. Instead it will settle more under traffic as a result of being high and cause rough running.

(v) Having aligned the track and adjusted the 'top' the Gangmen should be distributed in batches of two for packing all sleepers in a systematic manner, commencing from one end. Four men should deal with every sleeper successively, two at each rail seat. The ballast under the sleeper should be packed by the men standing back-to-back and working their beaters diagonally under the rail seat at the same time to ensure firm packing.

(vi) It is important that men should thoroughly 'break' the cores with the pick-ends and then use the blunt-ends (head-ones), as otherwise, uniform packing will not be achieved and elasticity of the roadbed affected. After packing the rail seat the packing should be continued outwards and inwards to the requisite extent on each side of the rail seat i.e., end of the sleeper to 450 mm. inside on the B.G. and end of sleeper to 350 mm. inside on the M.G. and end of sleepers to 250 mm. inside on the N.G. (762 mm.). The beaters should not be lifted above the chest level, the strokes being kept as nearly horizontal as possible. Care must be taken to avoid forcing under the sleeper any stones so large as to cause uneven bearing and to avoid striking the edges of the sleepers and timbers. All men should aim to work the beater from the same height (chest level) so that the sleepers are uniformly packed. Higher or lower lifting of the beaters results in uneven compactness.

(vii) In case of steel trough and wooden sleepers, packing under the rail seat causes the ballast to work towards the center. Before final dressing is done, it should be ensured that no sleeper is centre-bound by working the pick-ends over the central range. Centre bound sleepers cause vehicles to roll from side to side.

(viii) In the case of CST. 9 sleepers it should be ensured that the end pockets or bowls are filled with ballast and the main packing should be done at corners. The central flat portion of the plate should not be packed hard but only tamped lightly. On pot sleepers the ballast should be punned through the holes provided at the top of the pot and rammed in with crow-bars.

(ix) Care must also be taken while packing to ensure that the work does not result in the sleepers adjoining those being packed, lifted off their bed, thus creating artificial voids under them.

(x) The packing on the inside and outside at every rail seat should, before boxing the track, be checked by the Mate by tapping with a wooden mallet or a canne-a boule. A hollow sound would indicate defective packing which should be attended to again.

(xi) As soon as the packing is completed, slight distortions in alignment and top should be checked and corrected by the Mate, the sleeper disturbed for this purpose being finally repacked.

(g) Repacking of joint sleepers: The joint and 'shoulder' sleepers should be repacked, before boxing is done and the cross-levels at joints checked. The rail joint being the weakest portion, firmness of its support is essential.

(h) Boxing to Ballast section and Tidying - (i) After completing the preceding operations in sequence, clean ballast should be worked in with ballast forks or rakes. The ballast section should be dressed to the specified dimensions, a template being used for the purpose. Hemp cords 6 mm. dia. of sufficient length should be used for lining the top and bottom edges of the ballast section. Where the quantity of ballast is inadequate, full section of ballast should be provided near the rail seat, the deficiency being reflected along the centre of the track and not under the rails or in the shoulders.

(ii) The cess should then be tidied up. Where earth ridging is existing at the edge of the bank, this should be removed. Cess should be maintained to the correct depth below rail level according to the ballast-section and formation profile. Too high a cess affects drainage; too low a cess results in ballast-spread and wastage.

225. Maintenance By Measured Shovel Packing - Deleted.

226. Track Maintenance by Machines -

(1) General - Mechanical maintenance of track involving use of "on track machines" should be planned, on long continuous lengths.

(2) Pre-requisites to introduction of mechanical maintenance - (a) A minimum depth of 150 mm. of clean ballast is recommended for the proper functioning of the tie tampers. Adequate ballast should be available in the shoulders and cribs.

(b) For this purpose, planning and execution of deep screening of ballast where required, as well as running out of ballast, should be done well in advance.

(c) These machines require line occupation and availability of blocks for their working. It is desirable for these machines to be given a single block of at least 4 hours per day or two separate blocks of 21/2 hours each, for better working. It is necessary to have longer blocks, so that the net available time for working on the line is as high as possible. On the double line section, temporary single line working may be introduced whenever possible. Diversion of some trains along alternative routes may also be resorted to, wherever possible. An ideal situation would be to provide for time allowance for working the machines in the working time table. The block time should be interpolated in the master chart for passenger and goods trains that is prepared with every change in time table. It is as much the responsibility of the Operating Department as that of the Engineering Department to ensure provision of adequate time for economical working of machines. For this purpose it is desirable to frame a programme of working the machines in consultation with the Operating Department.

(d) Sanction of the Commissioner of Railway Safety is to be taken before introducing any new type of 'on - track' machine on a section.

(3) Pre-tamping attention - To achieve good results the P.W.I, should carry out the following preparatory work before taking up the tamping:

(a) Ballasting where there is shortage of ballast.

(b) Heaping up of ballast in the tamping zone, to ensure effective packing.

(c) Making up of low cess.

(d) Cleaning of pumping joints and providing additional clean ballast, where necessary.

(e) Attending to Hogged joints before tamping.

(f) Tightening of all fittings and fastenings like fish bolts and keys, splitting of cotters, and replacement of worn out fittings.

(g) Renewing broken and damaged sleepers.

(h) Squaring of sleepers and spacing adjustment; regauging to be done as necessary.

(i) Adjusting creep and expansion gap in rails.

(j) Examination of rails for cracks etc.

(k) Realigning of curves which are badly out of alignment.

(l) Clearing of ballast on sleepers to make them visible to the operator.

(m) All obstructions such as signal rods, cables, pipes, level crossing check rails, etc., likely to be damaged by the tampers should be clearly marked and made known to the tamping operator before he starts work. Tight overhead clearance should also be brought to his notice; the beginning and end of transitions should be marked. Super elevation should be marked on every second sleeper so that it can guide the operator for levelling up correctly.

(4) Attention during Tamping: - The following points should be observed by the machine operator and the Permanent Way Inspector:

(a) The tamping depth i.e. gap between the top edge of the tamping blade and the bottom edge of the sleeper in closed position of the tamping tool should be adjusted depending on the type of sleepers. This is particularly important in the case of steel trough sleeper because of its shape. Care should be taken to ensure that tamping tools are inserted centrally between the sleepers into the ballast to avoid any damage to the sleepers.

(b) The tamping (squeezing) Pressure should be adjusted according to the track structure, as per the recommendations of the manufacturer.

(c) The number of insertions of tamping tools, per sleeper tamped, varies with the type of sleeper -

(i) CST-9 sleepers and steel trough sleepers require tamping twice before passing on to the next sleeper.

(ii) Wooden Sleepers - Normally one insertion upto 20 mm. Lift and two insertions for lifts above 20 mm may suffice. One additional insertion for joint sleepers will be required.

(iii) Concrete Sleepers-Generally one insertion is adequate. Two insertions may be necessary if the lift is above 30 mm.

(d) While Tamping CST-9 and Steel Trough Sleepers, it should be checked that the keys are properly driven and they are tight.

(e) The shoulders should be compacted along with tamping, where separate provision for shoulder compaction is available.

(f) A run-off ramp of 1 in 1000 should be given before closing the day's work.

(5) Post Tamping Attention - The Permanent Way Inspector shall pay attention to the following points :

(a) As some of the rigid fastenings might get loose, tightening of fittings should be done immediately after tamping.

(b) Any broken fitting should be replaced.

(c) It is preferable to check gauge and do gauging, wherever necessary, after tamping.

(d) Proper quality check of work done by tamping machine is important. Immediately after the tamping work, the track should be checked, in respect of cross levels and alignment, and action taken as considered necessary.

(e) The ballast should be dressed neatly and proper consolidation of ballast between the sleepers should be done.

(6) General Notes on Working by Machines.:

(a) As far as possible machines should be worked in pairs in the same block section to make effective use of block.

(b) Where shoulder and crib compacting equipment is available with tie tamping machine, the same should invariably be used.

(c) Only trained and experienced persons should be deputed to man the machines.

(d) While stabling the machine, it should be ensured that all the locking devices are properly secured and the switches are put 'off'.

(e) Before putting the machine into commission all the devices should be checked and made sure that they are in proper working order.

(f) The machine should never be run at a speed higher than that permitted/ sanctioned by the Commissioner of Railway Safety.

(g) While passing trains, on adjacent track (s) on double / multiple lines, it should be ensured that no part of the tamping machine is fouling the other track.

(h) The prescribed schedules of preventive maintenance should be adhered to. Suitable maintenance organisation should be created in the Railways as necessary. Sufficient spares should be arranged. An assessment of requirement of spares, based on the experience should be made.

227. Systematic Overhauling - (1) Sequence of operations- Overhauling as described briefly in para 203 (2) should consist of the following operations in sequence :-

(a) Shallow screening and making up of ballast.

(b) All items attended to, while doing through packing as detailed in Para 224(1).

(c) Making up the cess.

(2) Shallow Screening and making up of Ballast

(a) For good drainage periodical screening of ballast is essential.

(b) In the case of manual maintenance, the crib ballast between sleepers is opened out to a depth of 50 to 75 mm. below the bottom of sleepers, sloping from the centre towards sleeper end. For machine maintained section, the crib ballast in the shoulders should be opened out to a depth of 75 to 100mm. below the bottom of sleepers, sloping from the centre towards sleeper end. The ballast in the shoulders opposite to the crib as well as the sleepers is removed to the full depth. A slope is given at the bottom sloping away from the sleeper end. The ballast is then screened and put back. Care should be taken to see that the packing under the sleepers is not disturbed and the muck removed is not allowed to raise the cess above the correct level.

(c) Two contiguous spaces between sleepers should not be worked at the same time.

(d) Screening should be progressed in alternate panels of one rail length. In no circumstances should several rail lengths of track be stripped of ballast.

(e) Where drains across the track exist, they should be cleaned and filled with boulders or ballast to prevent packing from working out and forming slacks.

(f) After screening, full ballast section should be provided, extra ballast being run out previously for the purpose. Work should be commenced after making sure that the ballast will not be seriously deficient. Deficiency, if any, should be shown in the central portion of sleeper and this also should be made up soon.

(3) Through packing of track - The detailed operations are described in Para 224. Through packing may be done either by conventional beater packing, or by using machines.

(4) Making up of Cess - Cess when high should be cut alongwith overhauling and when low should be made up. A template should be used for this purpose.

(5) General- Overhauling should be completed before the end of March. In the case of L.W.R. territory, the provisions in L.W.R. Manual should be followed.

(6) Screening in Welded area - In the case of S.W.R. area screening may be carried out at rail temperatures and conditions as detailed in Para509.

228. 3-tier system of track maintenance :-

(1) 3-tier System of track maintenance shall be adopted on sections nominated for mechanised maintenance. This shall consist of the following 3 tiers of track maintenance:

(1) On-track machines (OMU)

(ii) Mobile Maintenance Units (MMU) (iii) Sectional Gangs

(2) Large track machines for track maintenance include Tie-tamping machines for plain track and points and crossings, shoulder ballast cleaning machines, ballast cleaning machines, ballast regulating machines and dynamic track stabilizers. These machines shall be used as per the various instructions issued in Indian Railways Track Machines Manual. These machines shall be deployed to carry out the following jobs:

(a) Systematic tamping of plain track as well as Points & Crossings;

(b) Intermediate tamping of plain track as well as Points & crossings;

(c) Shoulder ballast cleaning;

(d) Ballast profiling/redistribution;

(e) Track stabilization;

(f) Periodical deep screening.

(3) Mobile Maintenance Units-

(a) The mobile maintenance units (MMU) shall consist of two groups:

(i) MMU-I: One for each PWI's section,

(ii) MMU-II: One for each sub-division

(b) The functions of MMU shall be as below:

MMU-I - (Rail-cum-Road Vehicle based) one with each PWI incharge with a jurisdiction of 40-50 Kms double line or 90-100 Kms single line:

(i) Need based spot tamping; (ii) In-Situ rail welding

(iii) Casual Renewal and repairs except planned renewals

(iv) Overhauling of Level Xings

(v) Replacement of glued joints

(vi) Rail cutting/drilling and chamfering

(vii) Permanent repairs to fractures

(viii) Creep or gap adjustments involving use of machines

(ix) Destressing of LWR/CWR

(x) Loading/Unloading of materials

(xi) Any other functions assigned.

MMU-II - (Road Vehicle Based ) one with each sub division

(i) Reconditioning of Turnouts

(ii) Minor repairs to the equipments of MMU

(c) The MMU shall be equipped with the following equipments. These equipments shall be used according to the working instructions, as and when issued.

List of equipments for MMU-I:

(A) Communication Equipment

1. Walkie Talkie  4 sets
2. Portable field telephones  4 sets

(B) Rail Cutting/Drilling Equipment

3. Disc Cutter  1
4. Rail Cutting Machine  1
5. Rail Drilling Machine  1
6. Chamfering kit  1

(C) Rail Welding Equipment

7. Rail Welding Equipment  2 sets
8. Weid Trimmer  1 set
9. Rail Profile Grinder for welded joints  1 set

(D) Spot Tamping with Lifting Lining

10. Off Track Hand Held 

Tamper with Generators 

1 set
11. Lifting Jack-hydraulic/ mechanical  4 sets
12. Lifting-cum-Slewing Device  2 sets

(E) Destressing Equipment

13. Rail Tensors- Hydraulic/ mechanical 2 sets
14. Rollers, wooden mallets 1 com- plete set for Destre- ssing 3 Km LWR

(F) Inspection Gadgets

15. Inspection Kit 1 No.
16. Gauge cum Level 1 No.
17. Rail Thermometer 1 No.
18. Vernier Calipers 1 No.
19. Micrometer 1 No.

(G) Material Handling Equipment

20. Rail Dolly  6 No.
21. Mono Rail Wheel Borrow  2 No.

(H) Safety and Protection Equipments

22. Warning System

23. Red Banner Flag

24. Red Hand Signal Flag

25. Green Hand Signals Flag

26. Detonators

(I) Gas Cutting Equipments with Accessories:  1 set.

List of Equipments for MMU-II:

(A) Points and Crossing Reconditioning Equipment:

1. Welding Generator  1 set
2. Arc Welding Equipment  1 set
3. Hand Held Rail Grinder  2 sets

(B) For Minor Repairs to Equipments:

4. Spanner of sizes 2 sets
5. Turfer 2
6. Files of Sorts 2 sets
7. Bench Drill 2
8. Vice Bench 2
9. Bench Grinder 2

(4) Sectional Gangs:

The sectional gangs, under 3-tier system of track maintenance shall perform the following functions:

(a) Patrolling of track:

(i) Keyman's daily patrol

(ii) Hot/cold weather patrolling

(iii) Monsoon Patrolling

(b) Watching vulnerable locations

(c) Attention of emergencies viz. temporary repairs of fractures.

(d) Need-based attention to bridges, turnouts, SEJs and approaches of level crossings.

(e) Greasing of ERCs, lubrication of joints, casual changing of rubber pads and other fittings

(f) Minor cess repairs

(g) Cleaning of drains and boxing of ballast

(h) Attention to loops

(i) Creep and gap adjustment not involving use of machines

(j) Cleaning of crib ballast for effective cross drainage

(k) Pre & post tamping attention

(l) Assistance to MMU & OMU as required

(m) Any other functions assigned.

229. Picking up Slacks - Slacks usually occur on stretches of yielding formation on high banks and cuttings, on approaches of bridges, on badly aligned curves, where ballast is poor in quality or quantity or where drainage is defective. Attention to slacks should be need based, need for the same being determined by inspections and results of track recording. Picking up slacks shall be done where the alignment is kinky or top level is uneven and the track has to be restored to normal condition quickly. The quantum of work turned out by a gang during the day will depend on the extent of slacks. In all cases sighting is done, the defects assessed and marks made on sleepers to be dealt with in chalk. The marked sleepers should then be dealt with as in through packing care being taken to see that the packing of adjacent sleepers does not get disturbed. In case a large percentage of sleepers needs attention in a rail length, the entire rail length should be attended to. The marking of defects shall be as indicated below:

It is imperative that when joints are picked up, at least three sleepers on either side of the joints are packed. Picking up slacks may be done, by conventional method or by off-track tampers. In the case of a low joint, the fish plates should be slightly loosened and the joint tapped, so that the rail ends are, rendered free and are capable of being lifted. After the joint is thoroughly packed the fish plates should be tightened again.

230. Observance of Sleepers under passage of traffic - During the passage of the first and last trains within working hours, the Mate and Gangmen at the work site should stand on the cess each about one rail-length apart on either side of the portion of track they are attending to, whether through packing or picking up slacks and observe the movement of sleepers under load.

Immediately after the passing of train, loose sleepers should be marked, packed uniformly and the packing tested. In respect of other trains, the Mate and the Gangmen should observe the sleepers near where they are working and take similar action. Firm and uniform packing is the primary need for good track maintenance.

231. Sample of standard section of track - At or near the commencement of each gang length between stations a sample of three rail lengths of track should be maintained to accord with all standards laid down -

(a) Formation of standard width and level below rail.

(b) Clean ballast of correct size, quantity and cross section.

(c) Correct alignment, level and gauge.

(d) Sleepers and fastenings in good condition.

The object of the sample track is to indicate the standard to which the track should be maintained throughout the gang length.

232. Checking work of Gangs by Permanent Way Inspectors - (1) Examination of Gang's Work- The work done by a gang either on the previous day or during the interval when the Permanent Way Inspector is next with the gang should be examined for alignment, surfacing and boxing throughout. The Permanent Way Inspector should inspect rails and sleepers and their fastenings and check cross levels, gauge, squareness of sleepers, packing, joint maintenance, profile of ballast and depths of cess below rail level. The Mate's Muster Sheet should be checked and initialled. Instructions to the Mates should be recorded in the gang diaries.

(2) Examination of tools and equipment - (a) The Permanent Way Inspector should examine every month and replace, when necessary, worn out tools and equipment.

(b) He should check the accuracy of the spirit level/gauge and straight edge every month, the result of this examination being entered in the Mate's diary book.

(c) Each gang should have the following minimum equipment:

(i) Level-cum-gauge.

(ii) One set of hand signal flags, red and green (2 hand signal lamps at night).

(iii) 12 detonators.

(iv) Steel scale 30cm. long.

(v) Straight edge 1 metre long.

(vi) Square.

(vii) Hump chord.

(viii) Keying and spiking hammer.

(ix) Marking chalk.

(x) Rail thermometer.

(xi) Sufficient No. of shovels, Phowrahs, beaters, crow-bars, Ballast-forks or rakes, mortar pans or baskets.

(xii) Wooden mallet or Canne-a-Boule.

(xiii) Feeler gauge.
(Advance Correction Slip No. 120 )

(3) Instructions and Tuition -The permanent Way Inspector should ensure that every man in each gang is aware of the following rules in which the men should be examined periodically and on appointment, promotion or transfer :-

(a) Protecting the lines in an emergency or during work affecting the running of trains.

(b) Method of fixing and safety range of detonators.

(c) Showing of signals with or without hand signal flags during day and with hand signal lamps during night.

(d) Action to be taken when a train is noticed to have parted.

(e) 'Safety first' rules.

(f) Patrolling of the line during heavy rains /storms and hot weather on LWR lengths. The Permanent Way Inspector should instruct the men in the proper use of tools and upkeep of the road. The instructions should not be of a casual nature; they should be demonstrative.

233. Lifting Of Track - (1) Lifting of track will become necessary during regarding and for elimination of minor sags, which develop through improper maintenance or yielding soil, to keep a good top.

(2) Correct level pegs should be fixed at suitable intervals, before lifting is commenced.

(3) Heavy lifting should always be carried out under suitable speed restriction and under the protection of corresponding engineering signals. Lifting should not exceed 75 mm. at a time so as to allow proper consolidation. The easement gradient for the passage of trains should not be steeper than 25 mm. in one rail length of 13 metres. The operation should be repeated until the required level is attained when the track should be finally ballasted, through packed and boxed, the cess being made up to proper level.

(4) Lifting should commence from the down hill end carried out in the direction of rising grade in case of single line It should proceed in the opposite direction to traffic, in case of double line, care being taken not to exceed the easement grade.

(5) While lifting track under bridges and overhead structures and in tunnels it should be ensured that there is no infringement of standard dimensions.

(6) In case of curves, it is usual to set the inner rail to the correct level and grade and to raise the outer rail to give the required superelevation, care being taken to see that the cant gradient is within the permissible limit.

234. Lowering of Track -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 128 ) (1) Lowering of the track should not be resorted to except where it can not be avoided and if resorted to, it should be done under suitable speed restriction and under the protection of Engineering signals.

(2) When lowering is to be done, trenches should be made across the track at every 30 M. to the final level in order to give a continuous indication, while the work is in progress. The ballast should be removed sufficiently far away from the track to prevent it getting mixed up with excavated material.

(3) The procedure is to clear the spaces between the sleepers, then slightly lift the track, break the packing beneath and level it into the space between sleepers. This material is then removed and the operation repeated until the final level is reached. The road should then be ballasted, through packed and boxed, the cess being cut down to proper level.

(4) Lowering as in the case of lifting, should be restricted to a maximum of 75 mm. at a time and the grade for passage of trains should not exceed 25 mm. in a rail length of 13 M. As opposed to lifting, lowering should be carried out in the direction of the falling grade.

(5) Work of lifting or lowering of track should be carried out in the presence of Permanent Way Inspector.

235. Distance Pieces to Platform Lines -

Tracks adjacent to platforms should be provided, with 'distance pieces' made of unserviceable timber fixed at intervals of about 30 M. one end of each such piece butting against the near rail and the other against the face of the platform wall or any other suitable arrangement to obviate the possibility of infringement of the horizontal distance from centre of track to face of platform coping.

236. Fouling Marks - (1) Fouling marks should be distinctly visible and difficult to remove.

(2) These should be fixed at the point at which the spacing between the tracks, begin to reduce to less than the minimum as laid down in the schedule of dimensions.

(3) The fouling marks should consist of a stone /cement concrete block about 1500 mm. in length, 250 mm. wide and 125 mm. thick, with the top edge rounded off and the top surface white-washed or of unserviceable rail pieces embedded in concrete support & painted white. These should be laid level with the top line of the ballast section.

The number of wagons which can be accommodated in a siding or a loop should be marked on each fouling mark.

237. Inspection and Maintenance of Points and Crossings -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 132 )(1) Maintenance -General- (a) Points and crossings should be laid without the 1 in 20 cant.

(b) Where large number of Points and Crossings are being maintained within a specific area such as marshalling yards, large lay-outs of sidings, terminal stations etc., regular cycle of maintenance covering all Points and Crossings should be organised.

(c) Cess should be low enough to permit efficient drainage and adequate depth of ballast cushion should be provided.

(d) Correct spacing of sleepers should be ensured according to the standard lay out drawings. 

(e) There should be no junction fish plates at stock rail joints or at the heel of crossings. At least one rail on either side of the Points and Crossings should have the same section as the Points and Crossings assembly rail section.

(f) Use of spherical washers at appropriate places in a Points and Crossings assembly is very important. A spherical washer is used to obtain flush fit of the head of the nut of the bolt with the web of the rail, in the switch and crossing assembly. The use of spherical washer is necessary where the shank of the bolt is not at right angles to the axis of the rail. Spherical washers are used on skew side. In I.R.S. turnouts with straight switches, these should be provided on the left hand side invariably in the switch assembly.

(g) The gauge and cross level measurements shall be done at the nominated stations as indicated in the proforma. The track geometry at the turnout should not be inferior to that applicable to the route. However, gauge just ahead of actual toe of switch shall be as follows:

(i) All BG turnouts of 1:12 BG 60 kg with 10125 mm O.R. curved switches (on wooden, steel or PSC sleepers), 1:12 BG 52 Kg with 10125 mm O.R. curved switches on PSC sleepers and all thick web switches (52 kg/ 60 kg) on wooden/PSC sleepers i.e. all turnouts with switches having switch entry angle <00o20'00" = Nominal gauge.

(ii) All other turnouts excluding those (i) above i.e. turnouts with switches having switch entry angle >

00o20'00" = Nominal gauge + 6mm.

h) The clearance, at the toe, heel of switch, at check rail and wing rail must be maintained within the tolerances prescribed in the schedule of dimensions.

(i) Packing under the sleepers must not be loose/defective especially under the crossing and the switch.

(j) The chairs and fastenings and all other fittings must be properly secured.

(k) The Points and Crossings assembly, should be in good condition and alignment with the rest of the track without kinks.

(l) Adequate creep anchors should be provided to arrest creep. Box anchoring of at least one rail length ahead of stock rail is recommended. Creep posts should be erected at all interlocked facing points opposite the toe of the switch and creep should not be allowed to exceed permissible limits. In case of PSC sleeper layout with elastic fastening, creep anchors need not be provided. In case excessive creep is observed at such layouts, the condition of elastic fastenings may be examined and suitable action be taken.

(m) It is desirable to weld stock and lead joints on the Points and Crossings assembly.

(2) Maintenance of Switches -

(a) In case of straight switches, correct amount of bend should be given to the stock rail on the turnout side at the theoretical toe of switch, to avoid bad alignment and kink.

(b) The condition of stock & tongue rails should be carefully examined. Badly worn and damaged stock and tongue rails should be replaced by serviceable ones. A tongue rail may be classified as worn/damaged when -

It is chipped/cracked over small lengths aggregating to 200 mm. within a distance of 1000 mm. from its toe (i) chipped length will be the portion where tongue rail has worn out for a depth of more than 10 mm over a continuous length of 10 mm.

(ii) it has developed knife edged tip (thickness of top edge being less than 2 mm) over a length of more than 100 mm any where upto a distance of 1000 mm from its toe.

(iii) it is badly twisted or bent and does not house properly against the stock rail causing a gap of 5mm or more at the toe, the limit described in the I.R.S.E.M. The tongue rail can, however, be reused after reconditioning of the broken/worn/ damaged tip by welding.

(iv)Tongue rail should be replaced/ reconditioned when vertical/lateral wear exceeds the values laid down. The wear shall be measured at a point with 13 mm head width and at the point where tongue and stock rails are at same level. This location is indicated in table at Annexure 2/6/1.

Vertical Wear - 8mm for 60 kg
- 5mm for 52 kg and 90R
- 3mm for 75R and 60R
Lateral Wear - 8mm for 60 kg
- 6mm for 52 kg and 90R
- 5mm for 75 R and 60R

(v) Wear on stock rail shall not exceed the limits laid down in para -302 of IRPWM. However, proper housing of tongue rails is to be ensured.

Burred stock rail likely to obstruct the lock bar, should be replaced, if necessary.

(c) Rail Gauge ties, rodding etc., hinder proper packing and ordinary beaters become ineffective. Yard gangs therefore, should use tamping bars at such locations.

(d) To check the housing of the tongue rail and also the throw of the switch, all non-interlocked points should be operated by hand lever and other points from the signal frame, when traffic permits doing so. If the tongue rail is found to be not housing properly against the stock rail, the defect must be rectified by the Permanent Way Staff in case of non-interlocked points and jointly with signal and telecommunication staff, in case of interlocked or partially interlocked points.

(e) Tongue rail should bear evenly on all the slide chairs. This will be ensured when all the sleepers are packed properly.

(f) When the tongue rail is in closed position, it must bear evenly against distance studs or blocks.

(g) All bolts on switches should be kept tight.

(h) Slight wide gauge at the toe of switch over and above the required widening to house the tip of the tongue rail, may be adjusted by providing suitable steel packing between the web of the stock rail and the lug of the slide chair wherever feasible.

(i) Stretcher bars connected to the pull rod shall be maintained jointly by the Permanent Way Staff and the Signaxlling Staff. All other stretcher bars shall be maintained by the Permanent Way Inspector. Stretcher bars insulated for track circuit purposes shall not be interfered with unless signal staff are present.

(j) Wear on switches can be reduced by lubrication of the gauge face of tongue rail.

(k) On wooden sleeper layout assembly, the slide chairs should be fixed to timbers by plate screws; Round spikes should not be used for this purpose.

Maintenance of Crossings -

(a) If any damage to the nose of crossing is noticed, its cause must be traced, which may be due to tight gauge or due to excessive clearance at the check rail.

(b) If wing rails or check rails are badly worn laterally, it could be due to wide gauge at the crossing. Gauge can be maintained properly by the provision of a gauge tie plate under the nose of crossing, on layout of wooden sleepers.

(c) In obtuse crossings, the distance between the throat and the nose must be maintained correctly.

(d) In diamond crossings, obtuse crossings should be laid square to each other with respect to the centre line of the acute crossings.

(e) Maximum permissible vertical wear on wing rails or nose of crossing shall be 10mm. However, on Rajdhani/Shatabdi routes, as a good maintenance practice, crossing and the wing rails should be planned for reconditioning/resurfacing by welding on reaching the following wear limits:

Built up/welded crossing 6mm
CMS crossings 8mm


(i) In case of CMS crossings, following dimensions should be deducted (to account for slope in casting of wing rails to 1:20 cant) from the observed wear measurements to find out the actual wear.

for 52 kg section :  2.0mm.
for 60 kg section : 2.5mm.

(ii) In case of welded heat treated crossings, the dimensions to be deducted from the observed wear for finding out actual wear is as shown on the relevant layout drawing.

(f) In the case of steel trough sleepers used in crossings, use of wooden blocks added to the contour of the underside of sleepers, strengthens the support and helps in better maintenance. However, for sleepers strengthened by providing steel ribs on their underside, use of wooden block is not required.

(4) Maintenance of lead portion and turn in curve-

(a) The leads and radii of turnout should be correct according to the section of the rail and the angle of crossing used.

(b) Initially, the lead curve correctness should be ensured by measuring offsets from the gauge face of the straight track. During maintenance, stations at 3.0 M intervals should be marked and the versines checked and track attended as necessary.

(c) The versines of turn in curves on loops should be recorded at stations at 3.0 M intervals on 6.0m chord length during the inspection of points and crossings to check the sharpness of the curve and rectified as necessary. The turn-in curve should also be checked for condition of sleepers and fastenings.

(d) The variation in versines on two successive stations in lead curve and turn in curve portions should not be more than 4mm. and versine at each station should also not be beyond ± 3mm. from its designed value

(5) Schedule of Inspections of Points and Crossings -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 134 )

(a) Permanent Way Inspector's Inspection -The Permanent Way Inspector-in-charge of the Section and his Assistant should carryout thorough inspection of points and crossings in passenger running lines once in 3 months and other lines once in six months by rotation.

(b) Assistant Engineer's Inspection - The Assistant Engineer should inspect once a year all points and crossings thoroughly on passenger running lines and 10 per cent of the points and crossings on other lines.

(c) Divisional Engineer's Inspection - The Divisional Engineer should inspect at his discretion a certain number of points and crossings particularly in running lines and those recommended for renewals.

(d) Proforma for points and crossings inspection is appended as Annexure 2/6.

(6) Cleaning and Lubrication of Points - At all interlocked and partially interlocked stations, the Signal Staff will be responsible for the periodical cleaning and lubrication of slide chairs of all points interlocked with signals or provided with locks. The Permanent Way Inspectors shall be responsible for the cleaning and lubrication of slide chairs of all hand operated points on their sections. (Advance Correction Slip No. 103)

(7) Alterations of Points - The position of points and crossings should not be altered nor should any be removed without the written authority of the Divisional Engineer. The sanction of the Commissioner of Railway Safety is necessary in the case of alterations/insertion/removal of points and crossings in existing running lines.

(8) Gauge and Super-elevation in Turnouts -(a) It is a good practice to maintain uniform gauge over turn outs.

(b) If gauge of track adjoining the points and crossings is maintained wider/tighter than the gauge on the points and crossings, the guage on the adjoining track must be brought to same gauge as in the points and crossings and run out at the rate of 1 mm in 3 M to the requisite extent.

(c) Super-elevation on turnouts with curve of similar or contrary flexture should be provided in accordance with Paras 413 and 414.

(9) Interlocked Points - Before interlocking work is taken in hand, the Permanent Way Inspector should :

(a) Bring the rails to correct level and alignment.

(b) Fully pack and ballast the points to be interlocked.

(c) Provide creep indicators if required.

(d) Mark places where the rods and wires have to cross the lines.

(e) To avoid future adjustments of gear, see that the Permanent Way at points, is laid to correct gauge so that switches, fittings and locks may be correctly put together.

(f) Clear formation and bring it to the correct level and section where rods and wires have to be run.

(g) Make the road at level crossings, if any to correct level and section to allow casing pipes for wires to be put in their final position.

(h) Provide and fix special timbers as may be required.

(i) Provide sufficient anchors of an approved type ahead of switches.

(j) Fit gauge ties correctly to all switches.

As interlocked points should be disturbed as little as possible, it is of the utmost importance that these instructions should be rigidly adhered to.

In the case of interlocked points, the Signal Inspector will be responsible for keeping in working order, the interlocking parts and apparatus. As the slewing of the track at points is likely to throw them out of adjustment, such work should not be undertaken except in the presence of the Signal staff.

On the advice of track defects from Signal Inspectors, Permanent Way Inspector should promptly attend to them.

(10) Date of Laying Points and Crossings- The month and year of laying a new or second hand points and crossings should be painted in white block letters on the webs of switches about 500mm. from the heel joint and the webs of crossings about 500mm. from the joint connected to the lead rails. When second hand points and crossings are subsequently laid at another site, the dates previously marked should not be obliterated; an indication of the total life will then be available. In the case of reconditioning of switches and crossing the date of  reconditioning should also be painted.

Annexure-2/6 PARA 237(5)



Point No.. Location _______________________________________________________________________________

Type of rail._______________________________________________________________________________________

Date of laying.______________________________________________________________________________________

Date of laying reconditioned crossing :___________________________________________________________________

         1st                                      2nd                              3rd                                                            4th

Date of laying reconditioned switch :

LH:    1st                                      2nd                              3rd                                                            4th

RH:     1st                                      2nd                              3rd                                                            4th

Type of sleeper/assembly.___________________________________________________________________________

Angle of crossing_________________________________________________________________________________

Nominal gauge of turnout.______________________________________________________________________________

Left hand or right hand________________________________________________________________________________

Laid on straight or on curve of radius.____________________________________________________________________

Similar/contrary flexure________________________________________________________________________________

NOTE : (1) Necessary additional entries may be made against relevant columns of switch, crossing and lead assemblies in case of diamond crossing, diamond single slip/double slips.

(2) Locations where the gauge and cross levels are to be checked should be painted on the web of the rail.




Part C

Works Incidental to Regular Track Maintenance

(Advance Correction Slip No. 122 ) (Advance Correction Slip No. 128 )(Advance Correction Slip No. 132 )Deep Screening of Ballast-

(1) General- (a) It is essential that track is well drained for which screening of ballast should be carried out periodically as described in Para 238(2). Due to presence of bad formation, ballast attrition, excessive rain fall and dropping of ashes and ore, ballast gets choked up and track drainage is impaired. In such situations, it becomes necessary to screen the entire ballast right up to the formation level /sub-ballast level. Further through screening restores the resiliency and elasticity of the ballast bed, resulting in improved running quality of track. Such screening is called "Deep screening", as distinguished from the shallow screening, which is done, during overhauling.

(b) Deep screening should be carried out in the following situations by providing full ballast cushion :

(1) Prior to complete track renewal.

(2) Prior to through sleeper renewal.

(3) Where the caking of ballast has resulted in unsatisfactory riding.

(4) Before converting existing track, fish plated or SWR into LWR or CWR; or before introduction of machine maintenance, unless the ballast was screened in recent past.

(5) The entire track must be deep screened at least once in ten years.

(c) The need for intermediate screening between track renewals may be decided by the Chief Engineer depending on the local conditions.

(d) At the time of deep screening, standard ballast section should be provided invariably.

(e) In case of the bad formation, formation treatment should be carried out along with the deep screening.

(f) The work of deep screening should be carried out continuously from one end of the section to the other.

(2) Procedure for systematic Deep screening (not applicable to LWR Sections) - (a) Survey : Before deep screening of a section is undertaken, it is necessary to survey the section. This will consist of the following operations :

(i) A longitudinal section of the track should be taken indicating the rail levels at every 30 meters, as also at changes of the grades, obligatory points like culverts, bridges, over line structures, tunnels, level crossings, Signal gantries, ash pits, and points and crossings etc.

(ii) In station yards, on run through lines, cross sections at every 50 meters should be taken and plotted including platform levels, rail levels and clearance to underside of overline structures.

(iii) On the basis of longitudinal and cross sections, the final levels will be decided by the Divisional Engineer, keeping in view -

The depth of ballast cushion to be provided;

The relative implications of lifting or lowering of track;

The possibility of eliminating humps, sags, and unevenness in the existing longitudinal section.

It is not necessarily the intention that the original longitudinal section of the line should be restored .

(b) Preparation of Estimates - The estimate for the work of deep screening and full ballasting should also include provision of survey mentioned in sub para 2(a) of this para.

(c) Preliminary works. - (i) Additional ballast required, should be unloaded/spread out opposite to the place where it is required. When ballast is collected along the track, care should be taken to see that the new ballast is not mixed with the unscreened ballast.

(ii) Cess should be brought up to correct level in relation to the final rail level.

(iii) Pegs should be provided at intervals of 30 metres to indicate the final rail levels.

(iv) Slewing of curves should be done in advance.

(v) Sleeper renewal as necessary should be carried out in advance.

(d) Screening operations - General - (i) The work would be done under the supervision of an official not lower in rank than the Permanent Way Inspector Grade III.

(ii) The daily output should be pre-determined, depending on the time allowance, availability of labour, extent of ballasting/screening to be done etc.

(iii) Taking the length to be deep screened daily, planning of speed restriction should be done and necessary notice should be issued to all concerned and speed restriction boards put up.

(iv) It will be desirable to proceed with the work of deep screening in the direction opposite to that of the traffic on double line.

(e) Detailed procedure- A day's length will be deep screened as per the procedure detailed below:

Stage I The ballast should be removed from space 'A' and 'B' on either side of the sleeper '1' down to final formation level and wooden blocks provided to support the rail for passing trains.
Stage II  The ballast is removed from under sleeper '1' down to final formation level/sub-ballast level.
Stage III The ballast should then be screened and placed back under sleeper '1' which should then be packed.
Stage IV The wooden blocks from space 'A' should then be removed.
Stage V The ballast from space 'C down to formation level should be removed and after screening, be placed in space 'A' upto bottom of sleeper The balance may be taken outside the track and screened The rail in space 'C should be supported with wooden blocks.
Stage VI The ballast should be removed from under sleeper '2' down to formation level.
Stage VII Screened ballast should be provided under sleeper '2' and sleeper well packed.
Stage VIII The ballast from space 'D' down to formation level should be removed and after screening, be placed in space 'B' upto bottom of sleeper; the balance may be taken outside the track and screened. The wooden blocks should be removed from space 'B' and placed to support the rail in space 'D'.
Stage IX The ballast from under sleeper '3' should be removed and so on till the whole rail length is provided with screened ballast upto level of the bottom of sleepers.
Final Stage  The track should be lifted to provide additional cushion where required. The track should be packed in the final position and then boxed.

Sequence of the operations is shown in the sketch on next page:

(f) The following points may be kept in view while doing the work - (i) No unscreened length should be left between screened lengths of the track at the same time.

(ii) It should be ensured, that when ballast is being removed from any sleeper, invariably, there are at least four fully supported sleepers between it and the next sleeper worked upon.

(iii) Lifting should be limited to 50 mm. at a time.

(iv) It should be ensured that packing, cross levels and grade run off are satisfactory before closing the day's work.

(v) The work should be done under a speed restriction of 20 km.p.h.

(vi) The speed should be gradually raised as in Para (g) below which will vary depending on the type of maintenance in the section.

(g) Schedule for working and speed restriction to be observed, in deep screening works.-

                                                   SKETCH SHOWING THE SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS

(i) With Manual Packing-The details of the work to be carried out in stages on various days, after the starting of the screening operation and the speed restriction recommended to be imposed are shown in Table 1. According to the above schedule normal Sectional speed can be resorted on the 21st day.



(ii) With Machine Packing -The details of work to be carried out in stages on various days after the start of the screening operations and the speed restriction recommended to be imposed are indicated in the schematic representation in Table II. According to this schedule, normal sectional speed can be resumed on the tenth day.




The period mentioned in the schedules shown above is the minimum and can be suitably increased to suit local condition of the track consolidation.

239. Side and Catch water drains and Waterways - (1) For efficient drainage of cuttings, side and catch water drains of suitable type and size should be provided. The bottom of side drains should be at least 30 cm. below the formation level.

(2) Adequate openings to take the full flow of side drains should be provided under level crossings where they exist in or at the end of the cuttings.

(3) In cutting of black cotton soil and similar soils, catch water drain should be provided sufficiently away from the top of the cutting to avoid any danger of a breach occurring between the drain and the cutting itself. The excavated spoil should be used to form a 'bund' between the drain and the top of the cutting.

(4) Ballast walls, where provided in cuttings, should be regularly inspected. The efficient maintenance of ballast walls includes regular cleaning of weep holes, the provision of weep holes where none exist and rebuilding where necessary.

(5) The Permanent Way Staff shall carry out cleaning of side and catch water drains, clearing of obstructions from outfalls and cleaning water-ways of bridges and culverts methodically and complete the work before the monsoon sets in. The spoil from cleaning drains or cuttings should not be deposited at a place from where it is likely to be washed back into the drains.

(6) In the Municipal areas, where the outfall of Railway drains is in the municipal drains, close coordination should be maintained with the municipal authorities to ensure free flow from Railway drains.

240. Drainage in Station Yards - (1) The network of cross and longitudinal drains in yards whether earthen or masonry, should be so planned that storm water is led away in least possible time. The system of surface drains of water columns carriage-watering and carriage washing hydrants should be efficiently maintained.

241. Lubrication of Rail Joints - (1) The purpose of lubricating rail joints is not only to facilitate expansion of rails but also to retard wear on the fishing planes of the rail and the fish plate. Reduced wear on the fishing planes is one of the preventives of the low joints.

(2) The lubricant to be used should be specified by the Chief Engineer. A stiff paste of plumbago (Graphite) and kerosene oil, made in the proportion of 3 Kg. of plumbago to 2 Kg. of kerosene oil may be used. Black oil or reclaimed oil may be used for fish bolts and nuts. Alternatives to the above may be used, with the specific approval of Chief Engineer.

(3) All rail joints should normally be lubricated once a year on a programmed basis during the cold weather months after the monsoon, from October to February. Lubrication should not be carried out in extremes of weather both hot and cold. In yards this period may be extended to 2 years with the approval of the Chief Engineer.

(4) Creep in excess of 150 mm. should be adjusted before the work of lubrication of rail joints is undertaken.

(5) The lubrication of rail joints should normally be carried out by gangs working under the direct supervision of at least a qualified Permanent Way Mistry. The work should be carried out under caution orders arranged to be issued daily by the Permanent Way Inspector and under protection of engineering signals, as per Para 806(2). In this case the procedure to be followed for lubrication of rail joints will be as follows :

(i) The nuts are unscrewed and the fish bolts and fish-plates are removed.

(ii) The fishing surfaces of the fish-plates and rail are then cleaned with a wire brush.

(iii) The rail ends are inspected for cracks, and the fishing surfaces of rails and fish-plates are checked for wear. A magnifying glass and a mirror should be used for detecting cracks in rail ends and fish-plates.

(iv) The fishing surfaces of the rails and fish-plates are then lubricated.

(v) The fish bolts are then put back in reverse position and tightened using a standard fish bolt spanner, the inner two bolts being tightened first.

(vi) While tightening overstraining of bolts shall be avoided.

(vii) Spare fish-plates and bolts should be available for replacement of cracked ones.

(6) Alternatively, the work of lubrication may be carried out by the Keymen of the gang, assisted by one or more men on such sections as may be specified by the Divisional Engineer. In such cases the Keymen shall exhibit a red signal flag at the site of the work and act as lookout man also. Normally not more than one joint should be opened at a time under this procedure.

In this case the lubrication of rail joints and reversing of fish bolts should be carried out as follows:

(i) The nuts are unscrewed and the fish-plate on the nut-side is then removed leaving the other fish plate and bolts in position.

(ii) The fishing surfaces of the fish-plate and the rails are cleaned with a wire brush. The rails ends are examined for cracks and fishing planes of rails and fish-plates for wear, a mirror and a magnifying glass should be used to detect cracks. Such conditions shall be brought to the notice of Permanent Way Mate/Mistry for necessary action. The fishplates are lubricated and put back in position.

(iii) The fish bolts are taken out one at a time, and then put back, after oiling.

(iv) The other fish-plate and fishing surface of the rail is treated similarly.

(v) The nuts are replaced and tightened to the extent possible with the standard fish bolt spanner without overstraining the bolts.

(vi) Two joints opposite each other or consecutive joints shall not be opened out at the same time. It should be particularly noted that at no time during the operation there is less than one fishplate and three fish bolts without nuts connecting the two rails. The men should sit facing the direction of train while doing the work.

(vii) Both fish-plates should be fixed and at least one fish bolt and nut on either side of each joint should be tightened when a train is approaching the site of Work.

(viii) Spare fish-plates and bolts should be carried for renewal of cracked ones.

(7) The Chief Engineer may issue subsidiary instructions as necessary.

(8) The lengths over which the rail joints are lubricated together with dates shall be recorded in the gang chart of the section and in the Permanent Way Inspector's section register. In the month of April, Permanent Way Inspectors should submit to the Assistant Engineers certificates of lubrication of rail joints giving reasons for any exception. Copies of these certificates should be forwarded with the Assistant Engineer's comments to the Divisional Engineer for scrutiny and record.

(9) During all works such as relaying, rail renewals and renewals of turnouts, etc. rail joints should be lubricated. The importance of going over and re-tightening the bolts after the fish-plates have taken a bearing under traffic should be impressed on the staff.

(10) Insulated fish-plates should not be greased.

242. Counteraction and Adjustment of creep - (1) General-Rails have a tendency to move gradually in the direction of the dominant traffic. It is believed to be caused by the' ironing out' of yielding track by the moving load, augmented by braking loads, and by the impact of the wheels on the running-on ends of the rails, particularly at times when they are in a state of expansion or contraction. Among the troubles caused by ' creep ' are -

(a) Sleepers getting out of square.

(b) Distortion of gauge.

(c) Loosening of joints.

(d) Shearing and breaking of spikes, bolts and fish-plates.

(e) Buckling in extreme cases.

(2) Causes for creep in Track-The following are some of the avoidable causes to which creep is attributed:

(a) Inadequate toe loads of the rail to sleeper fastening and rails not secured properly to sleeper.

(b) Inadequate ballast resistance to the movement of sleepers due to poor or insufficient ballast or other causes.

(c) Inefficient or badly maintained rail joints.

(d) Rails too light for the traffic they carry.

(e) Improper expansion gaps.

(f) Decaying sleepers, uneven spacing of sleepers.

(g) Lack of proper drainage.

(h) Yielding formation resulting in uneven cross levels.

(i) Loose/uneven packing.

(j) Rail seat wear in metal sleeper road.

(3) Precautions to reduce creep - (a) For reducing creep, it must be ensured that the rails are held firmly to the sleepers and adequate ballast resistance is available. All spikes, screws and keys should be driven home, the sleepers properly packed and crib and shoulder ballast should be compacted. Rail anchors should be provided wherever necessary.

(b) With steel trough and cast iron plate sleepers and in the case of sleepers where elastic fastenings and other fastenings with adequate toe load are used, no trouble is normally experienced. Careful watch should be kept for a series of jammed joints. Not more than six jammed joints continuously should be permitted in the case of single rails . In case of SWR not more than two consecutive jammed joints should be permitted at rail temperatures lower than "tm" in the case of Zone I and II and "tm-5" in the case of Zone III and IV. On girder bridges adjustment may be necessary at regular intervals. Anti-creep devices should be provided on the approaches of girder bridges for adequate length.

(c) : The PSC sleepers with elastic fastenings are considered as creep resistant and therefore no other creep anchors are required. In case, excessive creep is observed on PSC sleeper road, the condition of elastic fastenings, sleepers and adequacy of ballast resistance should be examined. Action for replacement/renewal of fittings, sleepers and providing adequate ballast resistance etc. should be taken as necessary.

(4) Creep Register- Creep registers should be maintained in the pro forma given in Annexure 2/7. Entries should be complete as regards kilometerage, section and length of rail, sleeper density, type and number of anchors per rail length used. Periodical readings of creep should be recorded in the prescribed pro forma . Separate page should be allotted for each km. Frequency of recording of creep should be specified by the Divisional Engineer taking into consideration the rate of creep. The Assistant Engineer should test check the register frequently, particularly sections which are prone to creep.

(5) Creep indication Posts- Creep indication posts square to the track should be erected on either side of the track on the cess at intervals of about one km. These may be un serviceable rail posts with chisel mark square to the joints . The top of the post should be about 25 mm. above the rail level and the amount of creep one way or the other measured with a fishing cord stretched over the chisel marks.

(6) Permissible amount of creep - Creep in excess of 150 mm. shall not be permitted.

(7) Adjustment of creep - Adjustments of creep should be carried out in the following manner:

(a) Careful measurement of expansion gaps, as existing, should be done and appropriate length which can be dealt with in one operation should be chosen. The total amount of gap in the length should be equal to the standard expansion gap required for the temperature at the time, multiplied by the number of joints in the length.

(b) Work should start at the running-on end of the length, commonly just beyond the points and crossings or level crossings. The work of creep adjustments should be carried out under the protection of Engineering signals by the Permanent Way Inspector as envisaged in Para 806(2). Before pulling back is commenced the keys are knocked out and fish-plates removed or eased. Correct expansion liners should be used and the rails should be pulled back with bars. If the fish-plates are removed, the bars can pull against a tommy bar thrust through a bolt hole. Next, the rail is keyed up, the bolts of joints correctly tightened up, and the expansion liner moved to the next joint, whereupon the process is repeated.

(c) It is a good practice to adjust creep before the commencement of summer. It is desirable to pull back the rails during the cool hours of the day.

(d) Mechanical and hydraulic devices are available for adjustment of creep. Such a device can be set with the wide joints behind it and the tight joints ahead of it. Expansion liners are put in all the wide joints, all keys, spikes and fish bolts are loosened.

The adjuster then closes up the rails behind it by pushing, leaving a gap of some centimetres between the rail ends opposite the machine. The corrected rails are then fastened up.

(e) The machine is next attached to the rail ahead of it, keys, spikes and fish bolts loosened for that rail and those beyond it. These rails are then pulled until only the normal expansion gap is left opposite the machine. The operation leaves some of the gaps wide and it is then necessary to fix the machines further ahead in order to close them upto normal by pulling against expansion liners.

(f) When the value of total gap existing is more than the standard expansion gap required for the temperature at the time of adjustment multiplied by the number of joints, it is necessary to provide closure rails. When closure rails are put in, a speed restriction of 30 km/h should be imposed, which should be removed, when closure rail is changed.

(g) During adjustment of creep, the sleeper spacing should be adjusted, if necessary, special attention being given to the joint and shoulder sleeper spacing.

(8) Provision of Anchors to arrest Creep -To arrest excessive creep on wooden sleepered road, not provided with anti-creep fastenings, adequate number of anchors of approved design should be provided; no anchors being provided at the joint sleepers. Both rail seats of the sleepers should be anchored on the same side. In addition to sufficient directional anchors being provided, back up anchors may be provided if considered necessary.

(9) Prevention of creep on metal sleeper road-Creep on cast iron plate sleepers should be counteracted as follows :

(a) On C.I. plate sleepers all keys should be driven in the direction of traffic on the double line and alternately in the opposite direction on single line.

(b) On steel trough road normally keys are driven as indicated in S.S.I, sheet 3 of 4 of Indian Railway Standard Track Manual. However, where heavy creep is experienced on double line, all the four keys may be driven in the direction of the creep (generally in the direction of traffic). On single line keys may be driven in the opposite direction on alternate sleepers.

243. Buckling of Track - (1) General -Buckling of track occurs when high compressive forces are created in the rails associated with inadequacy of lateral resistance in the track at the place. A special watch should be kept on the junction of two stretches of track, one liable to creep and the other held against creep, such as when track laid on wooden sleepers with inadequate anchors and scanty ballast or track laid on metal sleepers with loose keys butts against track laid on new sleepers with tight fastenings or track anchored and ballasted as with welded track. As one side of such a junction point is held firmly against creep, the movement of rails due to creep from the other side is resisted resulting in heavy compressive force being exerted which will tend to buckle the track. Jammed rail joints at such junctions are therefore an indication of the track being subjected to undue strain.

(2) Conditions which Induce Buckling -

(a) The following conditions create high compressive forces in the rail :

(i) Inadequate expansion gaps,

(ii) Failure to counteract creep in time.

(iii) Non-lubrication of rail joints,

(iv) Failure to remove rail closures from track.

(b) The lateral resistance gets impaired due to inadequacy of ballast and due to carrying out of operations such as deep screening, lifting of track and slewing of track, without adequate precautions.

(3) Precautions against Buckling - It should be seen that -

(a) Operations which impair the lateral resistance of track are not carried out when rail temperatures are high.

(b) The greasing of fish-plates is done before the hot weather sets in.

(c) The joint gap survey is done in the case of S.W.R. and adjusted before the hot weather (See Para 510). Similarly in case of single rail panel, joint gaps should be adjusted wherever necessary.

(d) Adequate precautions are taken to reduce creep as detailed in Para 242 (3).

(e) Overtightening of fish bolts is avoided - but they should be reasonably tight.

(f) Particular attention is also paid to stretches of track, one liable to creep and the other held against creep (refer para above). Jammed joints at such junctions call for remedial measures. Extra shoulder ballast should be provided at such places.

(4) Action on buckling of track - If a buckling does occur or appears imminent, the track should be protected immediately with hand signal flags and detonators as per the protection rules laid down. The buckled rails shall preferably be cut adequately apart not less than 6.5 metres. The track shall then be slewed to the correct alignment and cut rails of the required length shall be inserted to close the gaps making due provision for welding of joints on both rails. The cut rails shall then be connected by use of special fish plates and screw clamps and the line opened to traffic with speed restriction. It may not be possible to do any more until the temperature drops when the joints must be adjusted. Particular care must be taken to see that the factors which contributed to the buckling i.e. jammed joints, seized fish plates or shortage of ballast receive appropriate attention without delay.

Annexure-2/7 Para 242(4)


Part 'D'

Sleepers and Fastenings

244. Laying of Sleepers - (1) General - Sleepers shall be laid and maintained square to the rails on straights and radially on curves. Rail joints should be suspended. (2) Sleeper Spacing -

(a) The sleeper spacing on straights and curves shall be in accordance with approved plans. The sleeper spacing should be marked on the outer rail in case of curved track. Closer spacing should be provided at the joint sleepers of fish-plated joints and between the joint sleeper and shoulder sleeper.

(b) The following standard spacing should be adopted on fish-plated track :

(c) In the case of LWR on B.G. and M.G. the sleeper spacing shall be maintained at 65cm, as per para 5.4.2 of L.W.R. Manual.

(d) In the case of SWR, the sleeper spacing for M+4 and M+7 densities will be as shown on the next page.

(e) Where concrete sleepers are required to be laid in unavoidable circumstances as SWR the sleeper spacings should be the same as for wooden sleepers. The joint and first shoulder sleepers in such cases should be wooden.
(Advance Correction Slip No. 102 )

(f) In B.G. where SWR is expected to be converted into LWR within a year or two, 62 Nos. of sleepers shall be used per panel of 3x13m. length as shown on next page.

(g) Where SWR is to be converted into LWR soon after its being laid, sleeper spacing as prescribed for LWR in the LWR Manual should be adopted.

(h) The sleeper spacings under welded joints of all types with or without holes in rails shall be the same as the intermediate sleeper spacings.

(3) Sleeper Density- The sleeper density is the number of sleepers used per rail length and is described as M+1, M+2 etc., where M is the length of Standard Single rail in metres. In the case of LWR and CWR this is expressed as the number of sleepers per km. of track. The sleeper density is fixed duly taking into consideration the maximum permissible speed and the traffic density of the section.





iii) LENGTH OF B.G. FREE RAILS 13000 mm.

(4) Minimum Sleeper Density -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 117 )(Advance Correction Slip No. 130 )

(a) Broad Gauge - The minimum sleeper density for all future track renewals (complete track renewals and through sleeper renewals) is recommended and given as below.


Route Q R1 R2 R3 S
Sleeper density M +7 M +7 M +7 M +4 M +3

Note :- (i) Higher sleeper density may be provided with the approval of the Chief Engineer 

(ii) For LWR/CWR minimum sleeper density shall be 1540 sleeper/km, 

(iii) In case of SWR, the minimum sleeper density in the case of B.G. and M.G. is fixed as M+4.

(5) Respacing of sleepers :

(a) When respacing wooden sleepers dog spikes/rail screws should be loosened, just enough to permit sleepers being shifted.

(b) When respacing cast iron or steel trough sleepers, the keys should be removed and the packing core broken before shifting the sleepers.

245. Wooden Sleepers - (1) Classification of Wooden Sleepers - All wooden sleepers shall be classified into two categories viz. 'IT (untreated) and T (treated). Category 'IT (untreated) shall comprise of all sleepers from natural durable species only. The rest shall be classified as T (treated) category.

(2) Inspection and Renewals- The average life of wooden sleepers varies with the species of timber. In the interest of both safety and economy, it is essential that wooden sleepers more than 5 years old are thoroughly inspected every year according to the following procedure :

(a) The Permanent Way Inspector should carefully examine the track and bridge sleepers during annual through packing/overhauling. Those requiring renewals during the year should be painted with two white lines (Category I) and sleepers requiring reconditioning with one white line (Category II) at the end. Details of these telegraph-post/O.H.E. mast-wise should then be intimated to the Assistant Engineer. The Permanent Way Inspector will maintain a Sleeper replacement/reconditioning register in the following proforma :

(b) The Assistant Engineer should then test check the requirement given by the Permanent Way Inspector at site and examine about 50 sleepers per Km. particularly at places where the sleepers are more than 5 years old, and where the percentage of deteriorating sleepers is reported to be 20 per cent or more. The requirements together with the Assistant Engineer's observations should then be submitted to the Divisional Engineer.

(c) The Divisional Engineer should personally check these sections where abnormal increase in the number of deteriorating sleepers is reported to ensure that serviceable sleepers are not condemned prematurely.

(d) (i) Generally a sleeper is classified as unserviceable if even after reconditioning it cannot perform the essential function of holding the gauge, providing a satisfactory rail seat, permitting sleeper fastenings being maintained in a tight condition, and retaining packing.

(ii) It is advisable to carry out through sleeper renewal, before the percentage of unserviceable sleeper reaches a level, when imposition of speed restriction may become necessary. On branch lines, however, only casual renewals may be resorted to.

(e) While doing casual/scattered renewals, priority should be given in replacing unserviceable joint sleepers and unserviceable consecutive sleepers. Through sleeper renewals should be carried out in continuous stretches and released sleepers after reconditioning should be used for scattered renewals. New sleepers should not be used in sidings. If the percentage of unserviceable sleepers becomes high, speed restrictions may have to be imposed.

(3) Stacking of Wooden Sleepers - (i) 'U' category sleepers should be stacked in accordance with one of the methods shown in the sketch below in lots of 100s and covered with at least 150mm.

thickness of earth as a protective measure. The ground should be dressed to a flat slope and cleared of grass and undergrowth.

(ii) Treated wooden sleepers, released second hand and scrap wooden sleepers awaiting disposal should be stacked in horizontal layers without any gap, each stack being covered with 150mm. layer of earth.

(iii) A fire zone of about 10m. in width should be left around each group of 25 stacks and kept clear of grass and other combustible materials.

(4) Preparation of Sleepers-(a) End Binding -To protect the inner untreated portion of sleepers from being exposed to attack by insects/fungi due to shatter and splitting of sleepers in track, a systematic practice of end binding all new reconditioned sleepers should be adopted. This should be done for T category sleepers in the treatment plants, before treatment and for 'IT category sleepers, in the Divisional Track reconditioning depots. For effective end binding both ends of the sleepers shall be held in a press so as to close all the cracks and splits near the ends and end binding should be done using wire, hoop iron or clips. In reconditioning depots, it may be preferable to deploy end strapping machines for end binding.

(b) Adzing of Sleepers - (i) When wooden sleepers are used without bearing plates, the rail seats should be adzed to a slope of 1 to 20, planed for the section of the rail with the correct template. It is desirable to accommodate the rail foot in a recess 3 to 5mm. deep in the adzed portion of the sleeper to restrict the lateral forces being transmitted to the spike and to protect the sleeper from getting spike killed. The operation of adzing and recess cutting should be carried out preferably in the track conditioning depot, where the adzed rail seat may be treated with coal tar/creosote.

(ii) For treated sleepers adzing and recess cutting should be done before treatment.

(iii) Sleepers should not be adzed in the case of points and crossings.

(iv) When bearing plate or chairs are used it should be ensured that the seat is adzed or planed to ensure even bearing and that the two bearing areas are truly in the same horizontal plane.

(c) Auguring of Sleepers - (i) Spike holes should be bored right through the sleeper vertically where bearing plates are used and at right angles to the rail seat where the rail rests directly on the sleeper. The size of augur for boring should be as given below:

(ii) During the process of boring, the tips of augurs should frequently be dipped in oil to facilitate work. When sleepers are being bored outside the track, correct templates should be used. When being bored or rebored while in the track, the auguring should be done correctly with the gauge held in position. The holes after being bored should be given a coating of coal tar or creosote.

(iii) For 'T' category sleepers boring should be done before treatment.

(iv) When extracting dog spikes, the fulcrum on which the crow bar works should be raised so that  the spikes can be withdrawn vertically without enlarging the dog spike hole.

(v) Plate/Rail screws should always be screwed by box spanners and not driven by hammers.

(5) Use of Bearing Plates:- (a) Bearing plates should be provided invariably on 'T' category sleepers.

(b) They should be compulsorily used in the following locations:

(i) All sleepers on girder bridges.

(ii) All sleepers of turn outs.

(iii) All timbers of ash pits and examination pits.

(iv) All joint sleepers.

(v) On sharp curves of radius less than 600m. on B.G. and M.G.

(c) Bearing plates should receive two coats of black oil prior to their being fixed to the sleepers.

(6) Screws/Spikes at Rail Seat - (a) The number of spikes/screws per rail seat should be as given below :-

(i) All joint sleepers, bridge timbers, turn out sleepers and ash pit timbers  Four
(ii) Intermediate sleepers on curves on other than branch lines
(iii) Intermediate sleepers Two ( One on curves on branch inside and lines and on straights One outside). (Two outside and One inside)

(b) Where A.C. bearing plates are used on intermediate sleepers for arresting creep the number of screws/spikes per plate should be four for B.G. and three for M.G.

(c) (i) When two screws/spikes are used, the outer ones should be in line on one side and the inner ones on the other side of the centre line of the sleeper.

(ii) Screws/Dog spikes should be dipped in coal tar before use. If it is necessary to draw and re-drive spikes or to drive spikes in holes other than those freshly bored, such spike holes should first be carefully plugged with tightly fitting tarred wooden plugs and rebored before spikes are driven.

(iii) Additional screws/spikes may be provided at the discretion of Chief Engineer wherever necessary.

(7) Reconditioning of Wooden Sleepers - (a) Reconditioning of all released wooden sleepers before their reuse should be carried out in a centralised depot. To arrest deterioration in track, systematic practice of reconditioning 'in-situ', the spike killed sleepers, otherwise in good condition, should be resorted to.

(b) Procedure for Plugging Spike killed Sleepers 'in-situ'- Sleepers without bearing plate can be reconditioned without removing the sleepers from track. The sequence of operations should be as under:

(i) The fastenings viz. spikes, screws etc. are removed and the sleeper shall be cleaned of all dust.

(ii) The existing holes should be rebored so as to ensure that the existing holes are adequately scrapped all round.

(iii) The rebored and cleaned spike holes shall be plugged using tapered octogonal plugs of size of slightly bigger than the holes. These plugs are made from scrap hard wood sleepers in a centralized depot.

(iv) Before driving the plugs, the plugs are dipped in a mixture of creosote and coal tar. The plug should be driven right upto the bottom of the holes.

(v) After plugging, a new hole would be bored at some distance in line with the old holes, parallel to the centre line of the track. Then sleeper fastenings are re-inserted in new holes. (Annexure 2/8).

(c) Procedure for reconditioning of released wooden sleepers in Permanent Way Depots -

In the case of sleepers with bearing plates, repairs to spike killed holes which would involve removal of the sleeper from the track for the purpose of plugging the existing holes, readzing of the rail seat and boring holes in new position are best carried out in a centralised depot. When reconditioning of sleepers is done in a depot, the following works are also carried out:-

(i) End binding;

(ii) Rcadzing of rail seat;

(iii) Spraying with coal tar or creosote.

(d) Conversion of B.G. into M.G./N.G. Sleepers- Broad Gauge wooden sleepers which are classified as unserviceable and removed from track as such, can be conveniently converted to serviceable Metre Gauge or Narrow Gauge sleepers whenever their condition permits of such conversions.

Another method is to crop the two ends of the damaged/split sleeper, salvage the middle length to use them for making two block sleepers held together by second hand tie bars, with two long bolts holding tie bars in each block.

The aim should be to obtain maximum life out of sleepers before classifying them as unserviceable. With tamping methods of track maintenance and proper ballast cushion associated with proper treatment of sleepers, the service life of sleepers can be enhanced appreciably.

(8) Dating- When wooden sleepers are laid, the year of laying should be cut or branded on each sleeper at the centre or one end omitting the first two digits of the century. Thus '83' will indicate that the sleeper was laid in the year '1983'. All dates shall be in one direction, which in the case of double line shall be the direction of traffic and in the case of single line, in the direction of increasing kilometrage.

In the case of 'U' category of sleepers the dating will be done at the time of laying and in the case of T category sleepers, the dating will be done in the treatment plant before treatment.

(9) Important Points to be borne in mind in a Wooden Sleepered Track - (a) Intermixing of 'U' category and 'T' category sleepers should be avoided.

(b) No holes should normally be drilled in the treated sleeper in the field, nor adzing/planing done. But if new holes are to be drilled or adzing/planing to be done unavoidably, the holes/surface should be treated with hot creosote.

(c) To avoid damage to the sleeper by beater packing, M.S.P. should be introduced.

(d) 'U' category sleeper shall be laid with sap wood on top and heart wood below. 'T' category sleepers should be laid with heart wood on top and sap wood below.

246. Cast Iron Sleepers - (1) General - (a) CST.9 type cast iron sleepers are widely used in Indian Railways. However, these are not recommended for use in high speed routes in B.G..

(b) The usual defects noticed in CST.9 sleepers are detailed below-

(i) Cracks at rail seats or fracture.

(ii) Wear of lug and rail seat so that the sleeper no longer grips the rail firmly and the keys work loose, resulting in creep.

(iii) Tie bars weakened by corrosion, broken or damaged by falling brake gears, wagon parts etc..

(iv) Corrosion of tie bars inside the cast iron plate resulting in removal and adjustment becoming difficult.

(c) Cast Iron Sleepers should be considered for replacement when they are cracked or there is excessive wear at the rail seat making remedial measures ineffective. Such sleepers may be used in unimportant lines or scrapped .

(2) Precautions during maintenance - (i) Imperfect packing is the cause of majority of breakages of cast iron plates or pots . Care should be taken to see that the plate is packed evenly, so that it may not tilt either inward or outward. Tilting would disturb the gauge and will not give proper bearing. Defective plates should not be boxed with ballast unless replaced.

(ii) Cast iron plates tend to corrode in channels through which the tie bars pass. To prevent tie bars from being corroded into a solid mass, periodically alternate tie bars should be drawn out of the sleepers, treated with coal tar between the cotter slots and replaced

The Divisional Engineer will specify the interval at which the above action is to be taken. Action once in 5 to 7 years should suffice.

(iii) When owing to wear the keys on CST. 9 sleepers exceed the limit of key driving, the keys should be used with appropriate size of liners or replaced by oversized keys.

(iv) When driving keys, no hammer which is heavier than the standard keying hammer(1.8 kg.) should be used. Beaters should not be used for driving keys.

(v) While fixing cotters for CST.9 plates, it shall be ensured that the tapered side of the cotter is in contact with the sloped face of the CST.9 plate and the cotters are split sufficiently so that they remain tight.

(vi) When there is wear on the rail seat ,pad plates (saddle plates) of suitable thickness should be tried for arresting the creep.

247. Steel Trough Sleepers - (1) General - (a) Steel sleepers are liable to corrode and therefore they should not be used near coastal and other areas, vulnerable to corrosion. They should not be used near ashpits and platform lines where trains stop.

(b) The usual defects noted in the steel sleepers are detailed below -

(1) Rusted and corroded metal

(ii) Cracks at the rail seat or near the lugs, (iii) Elongation of holes.

Steel sleepers that are over 20 years old should be inspected in detail for defects every year in the same way as wooden sleepers.

(2) Precautions during maintenance -(a) Corroded or damaged sleepers should not be boxed with ballast until replaced.

(b) In steel trough sleepers with loose jaws and two way keys, the holes in the sleepers get elongated due to wear. Half-moon tapered washers should be used, to make up for the wear on the holes. Indiscriminate driving of keys should be avoided. Standard keying hammers (1.8kg.) should be used.

(3) Reconditioning of steel sleepers - Old steel, trough sleepers having worn out rail seats can be reconditioned by strengthening the rail seats with M. S. pads altering them suitably for use with 'elastic rail clip' fastening. ST. sleepers worn at rail seats or with elongated holes can also be reconditioned by welding a pad plate and drilling new holes.

ANNEXURE-2/8 PARA 245 (7)





Rails and Fastenings

248. Standard Sections of Rails -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 117 )(1) General- Rail sections are normally selected to suit the standard of loading and the speeds. The other important factor which must govern the choice of a rail section is the traffic carried so that adequate service life could be obtained.

(2) Recommended Rail Section -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 117 ) (Advance Correction Slip No. 129 )(a) Broad Gauge - The following minimum rail sections are recommended based on the speeds obtainable and the traffic condition :(Advance Correction Slip No. 139 )

Note : 52/90 represents 52 kg/90 UTS rail section.

(i) Existing 90-R rails may be allowed to remain for speeds not exceeding 110 kmph.

(ii) On routes identified for running of 22.1 Tonne axle load wagons, 60-kg rails shall be used on all routes.

(iii) Head hardened rails should be used on (a) Local lines where dedicated EMU stock is running, (b) Ghat section with gradients steeper than 1 in 150 and / or curves sharper than 2 degree, (c) Locations where due to grades, curves, traffic density and type of stock, the rate of wear of rails is such as to necessitate rail renewal, on wear considerations, at a frequency of 10 years or so. (d) Routes where predominantly captive rolling stock is moving in close circuit movement, particularly with heavy mineral traffic, (e) The HH rails should be laid on continuous & long stretches.

(iv) *Second hand 52 kg rails may be used on case-to-case basis, with the prior approval of Railway Board; depending upon quality of released rails available.

(b) Metre gauge - The following rail sections are recommended on M .G. routes:-

Route Rail Section recommended
'Q'and'RI' 52 Kg (SH)/90 R (New)*
'R2' and 'R3' 52 Kg (SH)/90 R (SH)
'S' 52 Kg (SH)/90 R (SH)/75R (SH)

 * 90R (New) to be only used with specific approval of railway Board, in case no suitable 52-Kg (SH) rails are available for use on MG during renewal.

(c) Narrow gauge (762 mm.) - Suitable new or second hand rails 50 lbs. and above.

249. Causes of Rail Deterioration - The principal factors causing rail deterioration are detailed below:

(1) Corrosion and rusting- Corrosion is caused not so much by the dampness as by acid gases dissolved in the film of moisture which frequently coats the rails. Corrosion is generally heavy in the following locations:

(a) Platform lines where trains make prolonged halts.

(b) Sidings where saline or corrosive goods are dealt with.

(c) Where the rails are affected by the dropping of engine ashes, such as at ash pits.

(d) Near water columns due to insufficient drainage.

(e) Tunnels and damp cuttings.

(f) Areas near the sea coast.

(g) Industrial belts.

Corrosion is generally noticed on the web and foot of the rail.

(2) Wear on Rail Table - Normally this is of a very small order. The amount of wear increases with heavy traffic density as in suburban section, though not proportionately.

(3) Flattening of rail table —This mostly occurs on the inner rail of a curve by high contact stresses combined with horizontal forces. The vertical pressure may be due to heavy axle load, large unsprung mass or under equilibrium speed on canted track. The horizontal forces are associated with slow running on canted track, which condition produces slipping of wheel sets. Spreading of rail table is an indication of overloading on one rail and such tendency can be reduced by providing appropriate cant.

(4) Wear on Gauge Face - The outer rail of a curve has to withstand heavy pressure from the wheels which results in the running edge becoming worn or 'side-cut'. Wear on gauge face is specially pronounced in case of suburban sections where multiple unit coaches are provided with laterally unsprung traction motors.

(5) Hogging of rail end- A hogged rail is one with its end or ends bent in vertical direction. A hogged rail end in the track is ascertained by unfishing the joints, removing the fastenings and then measuring the extent of hog at the rail end by placing a 1 metre long straight edge over the rail table, centrally over the joint as shown in the sketch below-


(6) Battering of rail ends - Rail end batter occurs where the joint gaps are excessive. It is caused by the impact of wheels on end of a rail particularly if the fish-plates do not fit snugly. Rail end batter is measured as the difference in heights of the rail at its end and at a point 30 cm. away from the rail end as shown in the sketch as shown below.


(7) Wheel burns - Wheel slipping occurs usually on adverse gradients or while starting on rising grades when considerable heat is generated and top of the rail is torn off in patches, causing depressions known as wheel burns, from which cracks may develop. This also occurs when train brakes are applied suddenly and wheels lock and slide. Wheel burns cause the wheels to hammer the rails and lead to difficulties in keeping the sleepers packed firmly and fastenings tight. Such rail should be kept under observation and changed, in case repair by welding is not feasible. The incidents of wheel burns is predominant where the mode of traction is electric or diesel-electric.

(8) Corrugation - In certain locations, rail table develops ridges and hollows called corrugation and when vehicles pass over these rails, a roaring sound ensues. Such rails are called "roaring rails".

In such locations, excessive vibrations are caused, due to which fastenings and packing tend to get loose, track needing frequent attention at these places.

250. Rail Maintenance to reduce Rail Deterioration - (1) Efficient maintenance of rails results in increased service life of rails. The following precautions/maintenance practices if observed ,will effectively reduce rail deterioration.
(2) Prevention of corrosion (Anti-corrosive measures)- (a) Anti-corrosive paintings -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 124 )

(i) Anti-corrosive painting of rails should be carried out in locations which are prone to corrosion.

(ii) While carrying out renewals in these areas, anti-corrosive treatment should be given before the rails are laid in the track. The rust is removed and scales are loosened by wire brushing/scraping. Thereafter rails are painted with -
One coat of Red oxide zinc chromate primer to IS:2074.                                   

Two coats of Bituminous emulsion to IRS-P-30-1996 to a dry film thickness of 350 microns (each coat to a minimum thickness of 175 microns).

(iii) In the case of rails that are already laid in track and subject to corrosion the rails should be given the treatment in the track itself. The rust and scales are first removed by wire brushes and thereafter painted with-

One coat of Red oxide zinc chromate primer to IS:2074.

Two coats of Bituminous emulsion to IRS-P-30-1996 to a dry film thickness of 350 microns (each coat to a minimum thickness of 175 microns).

(b) Rail flanges/web should be kept free of the ashes particularly near the ash pits in watering stations.

(c) Periodical cleaning of rubbish should be got done in goods shed siding lines.

(d) Water column should be avoided on the run through lines as far as possible. Where however water columns are necessary to be retained, proper drainage of water column should be ensured.

(3) Reducing side wear on rails-(Gauge face of outer rails) - (a) On sharp curves where the tendency to wear on the outer rail is noticeable, lubricators should be installed or hand lubrication of gauge face should be done, care being taken not to apply the lubricant on the top of the table.

(b) Increased life can be obtained by turning the rails when side wear reaches the permissible limit. At the time of turning, matching of rail ends on the gauge face should be ensured. Spot renewals should not be carried out with new rails particularly, if the heads of the existing rails are worn badly. These should be spot renewed with matching sections of serviceable rails.

(4) Repairs to wheel burns - This could be carried out at site by in site welding.

251. Maintenance Of Rail Joints - (1)Special care is needed for maintenance of fish-plated joints to get better rail life as well as improved running.

(2) The efficient maintenance of joint depends on :

(a) Efficiency of fastenings.

(b) The efficiency of packing and correct spacing of sleepers.

(c) The provision and maintenance of correct expansion gaps.

(d) The proper lubrication and fishing of the joints.

(e) The correct maintenance of gauge and cross levels and proper packing.

(f) Efficient drainage.

(3) Defects in rail joints - Some of the major defects, noticed at the rail joints and the preventive measures suggested to rectify or minimise the deficiencies /defects noticed are detailed below -

(a) Slack sleepers - Maintenance of joints by Measured Shovel Packing in case of flat bottomed sleepers improves the condition of the joints. In the case of conventional maintenance by beater packing it should be ensured that the sleepers do not get tilted.

(b) Loose Fish-Plates -Fish bolts must be kept tight, but not so tight as to prevent expansion or contraction of rails, by using standard spanners.

(c) Wear of Fish-Plates and Rails at fishing surfaces - When wear takes place on the fishing planes of rails and fish-plates, the joint dips down. The wear is generally greatest at the centre of the top of the fish-plates and least at the ends.

Two types of devices are used for compensating the wear of the fishing planes :

(i) Repressed fish-plates.

(ii) Tapered shims.

(i) Repressed Fish-Plates -The repressed fishplates are those which are hot forged so as to form a bulge in the middle part of the fish-plate conforming to the wear most prevalent.

(ii) Tapered shims-Tapered shims are pieces of steel, shaped to fit the usual pattern of wear between the top fishing surfaces. They are made in varying thicknesses, each size being designated by the wear in mm. between the fishing surfaces multiplied by 10. Thickness of shim is varied in steps of 0.5 mm. from 1.5 mm. to 3.8 mm. Length of the shims should be determined on the basis of actual wear pattern of different sections of rails. Shims are tapered in thickness from one to the other to conform to the wear. The sketch shown as below indicates the type of tapered shim, which is commonly used :


(d) Battering of Rail ends - Battering can be avoided by packing the joint sleepers firmly and by maintaining correct expansion gaps. Battering of rail ends can be repaired by in site welding. It can also be improved by end cropping.

(e) Hogged Rail Joints - De-hogging can be done by de-hogging machines. De-hogging of rail ends can be done by Measured Shovel packing. In this method the joint sleepers are normally packed to a specified height above the normal, taking into consideration the dip at the joint and voids below the sleepers, leaving the shoulder sleepers without packing. After allowing traffic for about two days, the shoulder sleepers are packed without lifting them. De-hogging is effected by traffic passing over the joints. Use of repressed fish-plates helps in improving the hogged joints. Hogging can also be eliminated by cropping the rail ends.

(f) Broken Fish-plates- Broken or cracked fishplates must be replaced with new or reconditioned fish-plates.

(g) Cracked or Broken Rail ends - The fish bolt and bond holes at rail ends weaken the rails. When maintenance is poor, rail end fractures occur, the fracture almost always starting as a fine crack from the fish bolt or bond holes. During lubrication of rail joints, opportunity should be taken to observe the rail ends carefully for any fine cracks. If cracks are noticed rails should be replaced. Chamfering of bolt holes and bond holes should be done. Ultrasonic testing of rails helps in detecting the cracks which are difficult to detect by visual examination.

(h) Pumping of Joints - Immediately after the monsoon, the ballast at such joints should be removed. Sand blanketting should be provided on the top layer of the formation which will prevent upward rise of clay slurry. On top of this blanket clean and adequate ballast should be put. Cross drains should be provided between first and second shoulder sleepers. Geotextiles can also be advantageously used.

(4) Other important points regarding joint maintenance - (a) Gap survey should be undertaken periodically and gap adjusted, as detailed in Para 510.

(b) Use of wooden sleepers at fish-plated joints, on a metal sleepered road, is desirable.

(c) Ordinary fish-plated track could be converted into three rail panel, wherever all other conditions for SWR are satisfied.

(5) Chamfering of bolt holes in rails-

(a) General: (i) Chamfering of bolt holes work hardens the periphery of holes and thereby delays the formation of star cracks. The chamfering of hole takes 5 minutes per hole. Each drilled hole shall be chamfered.

(ii) Existing bolt holes in fracture prone zones should be chamfered if not elongated. In case of elongated holes, the chamfering bit will not be in contact with the full edge of the bolt holes and there will be uneven hardening of the metal resulting in stress concentration in weaker-zones. Therefore, such portion of rail should be removed; holes should be drilled and chamfered.

(b) Equipment for chamfering of bolt holes: Work hardening of bolt holes should be done with chamfering kit of approved make. The chamfering kit consists of the following:

Equipment (as per Fig.1)                           Qty. 

(i) High tensile bolt M-20                          1 No.

(ii) High tensile nut for M-20 bolt               1 No.

(iii) Sets of 2 H.S.S. chamfering bits           1 set  

(iv) 19mm sq. drive sockets size 32mm       8 Nos.

(v) Set of 2 packing pieces (sleeves)            1 set

(vi) T-400 torque-wrench with built-in rachet Mechanism 1.25m length    1 No.


(c) (i) Chamfering of bolt holes in the welded rail panels should be done before despatch in the Flash Butt Welding Plants, if situation so warrants.

(ii) When rails in track are end-cropped, new bolt holes should be chamfered at site.

(iii) Bolt holes in new rails received directly from steel plant should be chamfered before rails are laid in track.

(d) Procedure for chamfering of bolt holes: (i) The nut of high tensile steel bolt is removed and one packing piece is inserted in the shank followed by one side of the H.S.S. chamfering bit.

(ii) The high tensile steel bolt is inserted with 2 pieces in the rail hole.

(iii) On the other face of the rail hole, the second half of the HSS chamfering bit is inserted over the shank followed by the second packing piece.

(iv) The nut on the high tensile steel bolt is replaced.

(v) Pre-set torque-wrench on nut at torque value of 52 Kg-m equivalent to an axial force of 12.5 tonnes, is applied. The nut is tightened with the torque wrench. As soon as the preset torque is attained, the torque wrench will automatically trip indicating complete tightening to preset torque value.

(vi) The nut by reversing the torque wrench is unscrewed and HTS bolt is removed. The process is repeated on other rail holes.

(e) Chamfering of each hole should be done under the supervision of Mate/Keyman.

252. Inspection of Rails In Service -

(1) General- Rails should be inspected for flaws specially, when the rails show signs of fatigue and the rail wear is excessive. The detection of rail flaws is done either by visual examination of the rail or by ultrasonic rail flaw detection.

(2) Visual examination of Rails - Most of the rail flaws develop at the rail ends. Rail ends should be examined for cracks during the lubrication of rail joints by cleaning the surface of the rail by wire brushes and using a magnifying glass. A small mirror is of assistance in examining the underside of rails. Such an inspection on the important grider bridges and their approaches should be done twice a year.

(3) "Ultrasonic testing of rails is specialized activity and the inspectors carrying out the ultrasonic testing of rails shall be trained by RDSO, in the technique of USFD testing. Each zonal railway shall create adequate number of ex-cadre posts of inspectors to ensure that entire track length in their jurisdiction is ultrasonically tested at the laid down periodicity.

Detailed instructions for ultrasonic testing of rails and welds are contained in the Manual for Ultrasonic Testing of Rails and Welds, August, 1998, which along with its correction slips may be referred to as Annexure to this Manual, It is very important that instructions contained therein are carefully studied by the Permanent Way Officials connected with the laying and maintenance of track".

(4) USFD Testing of Service Rails:- No rail untested by USFD shall be laid in the track whether for new lines or layouts or renewals or for repair works or even temporarily such as service rails for PQRS work. For repairs and casual renewals, a location-wise imprest of tested rails of various lengths (13m, 9m, 6m) shall be prescribed for each PWI by Sr. DEN/DEN.

253. Action to be taken in the case of Rail fractures/Weld failures - (1) It is of paramount importance that whenever a fracture of a rail/welded joint is noticed, immediate action is taken to restore the track, if necessary with restricted speed, with the least possible delay.

(2) The Mate/Keyman/Gangman, as soon as he notices the rail fracture/weld failure should first protect the track, while the repairs are being carried out. He should also send information to the P.W.I, and the Station Master of the nearest station.

(3) If the fracture is with a gap of less than 30 mm. in the case of fish-plated/SWR track, the fractured portion should be supported on wooden block or by shifting the nearest sleepers on both sides. In the case of LWR the fractured rail should also be clamped.

(4) When the fracture gap is more than 30 mm., a closure of appropriate length should be used with a clamp and further action taken as in sub-Para (3) above.

(5) In cases where a small portion or piece of rail has come off or in the case of multiple fracture, the rail has to be changed.

(6) In the case of weld failure, joggled fish-plates and clamps should be used.

(7) After doing the emergency repairs the trains may be passed at 20 km. p.h. by a Mate/Keyman, until the Permanent Way Official replaces the rail and restores full speed.

(8) If there is a spate of rail fractures, additional Keyman's patrol should be introduced in the early hours of the morning.

254. Stacking of Rails - In stacking rails, care shall be taken that -

(a) The ground is level;

(b) Free rails are supported at least at four points, evenly in their length; and

(c) Each stack of the rail should be of the same section and class.

255. Handling of Rails - (1) Any carelessness in loading, unloading, handling and laying is liable to cause damage which will not only contribute towards bad running but also result in irreparable damage to, or incipient failures of rails. During loading and unloading, ramps of unserviceable rails should be made and the rails slid over them, intermediate supports being given to prevent excessive sagging.

(2) When conveyed in bolster -wagons, the rails should be loaded to obtain equal over hang at each end beyond the bolsters and securely chained.

(3) Carrying rails, on the head or shoulders should be avoided. For handling rails, slings or tongs should be used. When hauled into position, prior to linking or otherwise, rails should be so spread as to rest evenly along their entire length or on supports closely spaced. Flat footed rails should lie on the foot. Those that are found with kinks should be straightened.

(4) When housing rails into metal sleepers or chairs, the sleepers should be properly aligned and levelled. Forced insertion of rails with hammer blows should be avoided.

(5) During yard surveys, curve adjustments and realigning operations, chisel or punch marking of rails should be avoided.

256. Rail Closures - The following instructions regarding use of rail closures should be observed :

(1) (a) Permanent closure in running lines should not be less than 5.5 metre in length. However, for locations such as 500 metre length on both side approaches of tunnels, tunnel proper, major and important bridges including bridge proper, deep cuttings and high embankments, the stipulations of Para 1 (b) below shall apply.

(b) Permanent closure in running lines, on locations specified in para 1 (a) above, should not be less than 11 metre in length, between two adjoining fish plates.

The closure rails existing in track which are less than 11 metre, should be welded at least at one joint on either side to make the minimum rail length of 11 metre between two adjoining fish plated joints. Till such time this welding is done and the length of at least 11 metre is achieved, speed restriction of 30 kmph shall be imposed.

(2) The use of closures should be limited and reduced to the minimum possible.

(3) Closures should not be located near each other in the same portion of track nor in proximity to-

(a) Junctions of different types of rails and/or sleepers.

(b) Bridges, level crossings, ash pits, and points and crossings

(4) Closures should be obtained by hacksaw cutting and not by gas cutting.

(5) It is better not to use closures opposite to each other but stagger the same.

257. Rail Failures - (1) Definition of a Rail failure- A rail is said to have failed if it has fractured in track or it is considered necessary to remove it from track on account of defects other than those due to accidental damages due to buckling, kinking, derailments, abnormal wheel burns etc.

(2) Action to be taken in case of Rail failures-When a rail fails in track, action as detailed in items (i), (ii) and (iii) below is to be taken -

(i) Entry in the Permanent Way Inspector's section register as detailed in sub para (3) below.

(ii) Preparation of a detailed report of the failure in cases where applicable as laid down in sub-para (4) as mentioned below.

(iii) Detailed metallurgical investigation in cases, where applicable, as per sub-paras (4) & (5)

(3) Register of Rail failures - All the cases of rail failures have to be entered in the section register by the Permanent Way Inspector as laid down in Para 210. For this purpose all failures whether in running lines, points and crossing rails etc. and irrespective of type and age of the rails, have to be entered in the section register. This recode is intended to serve as a basic record which should be available in the office of the Permanent Way Inspectors and will serve to furnish data, if required subsequently for any statistical analysis or for framing out proposals for track renewal works. Care should therefore be taken by the Permanent Way Inspectors for filling up all the details as per Para 210. The Assistant Engineer concerned shall call for the P. W. l.'s register once every year and initial the same in token of his perusal.

{A) Reports of Rail failures - In addition to the record maintained in the section register, as detailed above, a report has to be prepared as per Annexure 2/10 in all cases of rail failures occurring in track with the exception of the cases noted below -

(a) Rail failures occurring in non running lines.

(b) Non standard and obsolete rails.

(c) Rails removed due to casual renewals on account of accidental damages to the rails such as wheel burns and scabbings, buckling, kinking, derailments, abnormal slipping of loco wheels, excessive wear, loss of section by corrosion, battering, elongation of holes.

(d) Machined rails such as mitred joints, switch expansion joints, switches and crossings.

For this purpose, the Permanent Way Inspector will prepare a 'Rail failure' Report in quadruplicate as per pro forma at Annexure 2/10 and shall forward 3 copies to the Assistant Engineer, who will transmit all the copies with his remarks to the Divisional Engineer, for onward transmission of one copy each to the Chief Engineer and Director ( M&C)/RDSO/Lucknow-11. In case of failures requiring metallurgical investigation, the report should be prepared in quaint plicate, the extra copy being sent to the Chemist and Metallurgist of the Zonal Railway along with the samples as detailed in the sub-para (6) below. Efforts should be made by Divisional Engineer so that the report reaches the Director (M&C)/RDSO within a month of the rail failure. The Director (M&C) will arrange to carry out annual numerical analysis of rail failures from the reports received from the Permanent Way Inspectors and the Chemist and Metallurgist and publish reports with suggestions for reducing failures.

Sketches illustrating the fractures will be prepared and submitted with the failure reports on each case, care being taken that the running face of the rail is indicated thereon.

It is particularly essential to record the type of failure in the failure reports against item No. 5.3 as per R.D.S.O. monograph " Rail Failures -Description, Classification and Reporting". In most cases, it is possible to determine the cause of the failure by visual examination/ultrasonic detection without the need for metallurgical investigation. However, in cases mentioned in sub-para (5) below, it is obligatory to take up full metallurgical examination by the Chemist and Metallurgist of the Railway concerned with a view to ascertaining the exact cause of failure. In such cases the rail failure report should be made out in the prescribed pro forma inserting the most probable code of failure against item No. 5.3 and indicating whether the sample has been sent to the Chemist and Metallurgist for metallurgical investigation.

For the cases of rail failures detected visually, a short piece of rail approximately 2 m. long has to be sent to the Zonal Railway Chemist and Metallurgist by the Permanent Way Inspector direct, along with a copy of the rail failure report only for such cases which come under the category listed below. In other cases, i.e. , those detected by ultrasonic flaw detectors, the rail pieces have to be sent for metallurgical test only from those rails which are removed from track based on the criteria for renewal of rails and falling in the category listed below. The test pieces for metallurgical examination are to be sent only for rail failures which occur within 10 years of primary renewals and for which detailed reports are to be prepared. To sum up, before sending the test pieces to the Chemist and Metallurgist, it should be ensured that -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 122 )

(i) The rail failure is within 10 years of primary renewals;

(ii) The rails have been removed from track as a result of visual or ultrasonic detection; and

(iii) The failures fall only in categories listed below:

(iv) The rails where rail/weld failure is a prima facie cause of the train accident should be sent to RDSO.

In cases of failures of imported rails occurring within guarantee period, stipulation of sub Para (6)

(5) Type of rail failures for which metallurgical investigation is required -

(a) 100/200 - Transverse breakage with apparent origin (sudden breakage)

(b) 1212/2212- Head, surface, shallow surface defect (line).

(c) 1321/2321 - Web horizontal crack at top fillet radius.

(d) 1322/2322- Web horizontal crack at bottom fillet radius.

(e) 1323/2323- Web horizontal crack not at fillet radius.

(f) 238 - Web diagonal cracks not at a hole.

(g) 253 - Foot , vertical, longitudinal crack in foot half-moon break.

(h) 1511/2511 - Foot transverse break at rail seat.

(i) 1512/2512 - Foot transverse break not at rail seat.

(j) 111/211 -Internal flaw in head, transverse breakage.

(k) 112/212 - Internal flaw in head, horizontal crack.

(I) 113/213 - Internal flaw in head, vertical longitudinal split.

(m) 133/233 -Web, vertical longitudinal splitting

(n) 139/239 - Web, lap.

(o) 153/253 - Foot, vertical longitudinal split.

(6) Failure of imported rails within the Guarantee period - In all cases of failure of imported rails, occurring within the guarantee period, irrespective of the type of fracture/flaw a 2 m. piece containing the fracture/ flaw detected visually or by ultrasonic flaw detector, should be sent to the Chemist and Metallurgist together with a rail failure report for metallurgical investigation.
(Advance Correction Slip No. 122 )

(7) Procedure for sending samples for metallurgical investigation— In case of fractured rail, both the pieces containing fractured faces should be sent to the Chemist and Metallurgist for investigation. To avoid damage in transit, the fractured faces shall be protected with mineral jelly and suitably covered with Hessian cloth. Cracked rails may also be suitably protected at the crack location to avoid damage in transit. Pieces having internal defects may be dispatched as such.
(Advance Correction Slip No. 122 )

The Chemist and Metallurgist of the Railway will carry out metallurgical investigation, as required, and forward one copy of the report each to the Chief Engineer of the Railway and the Director (M&C)/ R.D.S.O.

In case of failures of imported rails within the guarantee period, attributable to manufacturing defects as revealed my metallurgical investigation, the Chief Engineer should immediately lodge a provisional claim with the manufacturer pending Director (M&C)' s confirmation of the findings submitted by the Chemist and Metallurgist of the Railway. The Director ( M&C )/ R.D.S.O. will scrutinise the report submitted by the Chemist and Metallurgist and if he agrees with the findings as submitted, inform the Chief Engineer accordingly. Where the Director (M&C)/ RDSO feels the need for carrying out further investigation before giving his verdict, he will call for the sample from the Chemist and Metallurgist of the Railway and carry out confirmatory tests, as necessary and intimate the findings to the Chief Engineer. On the basis of Director (M&C)'s advice, the Chief Engineer will then finalise the claim with the manufacturer.

In case of failures of rails other than imported, the Director (M&C)/RDSO will call for samples from the Chemist and Metallurgist, for confirmatory test, where necessary. Based on the trend indicated by the numerical analysis of the rail failures for the period under review, the Director (M&C) will bring to the notice of the indigenous manufacturers and D.G.S. & D. any predominance of failures attributable to manufacturing defects, to enable corrective action being taken.

258. Careful usage of Fish-Plates - (1) The hammering of the fish-plates should be strictly forbidden. For removing a fish-plate which has seized to the rails, the fish-plate may be tamped gently, by a hammer by interposing a wooden piece.

(2) Over tightening of fish-plates shall be avoided. Fish bolt spanner of standard length 680 mm to 760 mm on B.G. and 530 mm to 610 mm on M.G. and N.G. (762 mm) shall be used. Alternatively mechanical torque wrenches with predetermined torque should be used. When tightening bolts the two central bolts should be tightened first.

259. Combination Fish-Plates - Rails at joints should butt against each other and fish bolts tightened. A set of four combination fishplates is to be used at joints of two different rail sections. The 4 fishplates are different from each other and are marked I.R., OR., I.L. or O.L. apart from their part numbers. On either side of combination fishplates, full length of rail should be used. Combination rails prepared by welding two rail sections as per standard drawings should, preferably be used in place of combination fish-plates.

260. Fish-plates failures - (a) A fish-plate is said to have failed if it fractures or cracks in service in track for reasons other than service wear and tear, accidents, or excessive wheel grazing noticed on it, and it becomes necessary to remove it from track.

(b) All cases of failure of fish-plates shall be entered by the Permanent Way Inspector in the section register allotting separate pages for the same.

(c) Renewal of worn fish-plates should be considered when condition has reached a stage where remedial measures like use of tapered shims are ineffective.


ANNEXURE-2/10 Para 257 (4) Pro forma for Reporting Rail Failures

Broken/Cracked/Defective rail removed of 19.................... .

1.0 General Information

1.1. Division.

1.2. Section (name of line or branch).

1.3. Between Stations..................................................................and..........................................................................................

1.4. Kilometrage.

1.5. Line.

       1.5.1. Up/Down/Single.

       1.5.2. B.G./M.G./N.G.

1.6. Alignment.

      1.6.1. Straight/Curve(indicate degree of curvatures).

      1.6.2. Inner/Outer in case of curve. 

2.0. Charateristics of Traffic and Traction.

      2.1. Traffic density in G.T. K. M./annum.

      2.2. Total traffic carried in G.M.T. before failure (for realeased rails, also add previous traffic carried).

      2.3. Maximum axle load with type of vehicle on section.

      2.4. Maximum permissible speed.

3.0. Characteristics of Rail.

      3.1. Rail Section

      3.2. Rolled marking ...................................

      3.3. Total number of years in service..................

      3.4. Cast No.

4.0 Characteristics of Track.

     4.1. If fracture occurred at or within 100mm. of weld, indicate date of welding.

     4.2. Position of fracture.

     4.3. Type of sleepers and density.

     4.4. Depth of ballast.

5.0. Particulars of defect or fracture.

     5.1. Detected-Visually/By flaw detector.

     5.2. Remarks, if any.................................................

     5.3. Classification of failure in code........................

..........................................                        ...........................................                  .................................                      
Signature of Permanent Inspector                 Way Signature of Asst. Engineer            Signature of Divi. Engineer

PART - 'F' 

Ballast and Ballast Depots

261. Type of ballast in use - Stone ballast shall be used on all lines including points and crossings.

262. Size of the Ballast - The gauge of stone ballast shall be as follows:

As per specifications issued from time to time.

263. Ballast Profiles/Sections/Depths of Cushion - (1) Ballast Profiles/Sections to be adopted - The following ballast profiles shall be provided for the various groups of track in B.G., M.G., and N.G. :-

LWR/CWR                                                     other than LWR/CWR

B.G. .. Annexure 2/11   
(Advance Correction Slip No. 128 )                                  ... Annexure 2/13

M.G. .. Annexure 2/12                                             ...Annexure 2/14

N.G......                                                         ...Annexure 2/15

In the case of conversion to CWR/LWR in both B.G. and M.G., the ballast profiles should be made up as per the Manual. The approximate quantity of ballast required per metre run of track for each of these standard ballast sections has been worked out and shown in the sketch itself.

(2) Minimum depths of Ballast Cushion -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 117 ) (a) The recommended minimum depth of the ballast below the bottom of the sleepers at the rail seat should be as under -(Advance Correction Slip No. 126 )

Groups                                                                  Recommended depth

B.G. Group 'A'                                                           300 mm

B.G. Groups 'B' and 'C '                                               250 mm

B.G. Group 'D'                                                           200 mm

B.G. Group 'E'                                                           150 mm

M.G. 'Q' routes                                                         250mm (300 mm when speed is 100 kmph) 

'R1' routes                                                               250 mm 

'R2' and 'R3' routes                                                    200 mm

'S' routes                                                                150 mm

Narrow gauge                                                           150 mm

Note:- (i). In case of SWR the recommended depth is 200mm.

(ii) Whenever primary renewals are carried out even on 'E' routes, the minimum depth of ballast of 200mm shall be provided.

(iii) Minimum depth of ballast under the rail seat of the sleepers shall be 150mm except under PRC sleepers where it shall be 250mm.

(iv) Wherever 22.1 t Axle load rolling stock is nominated to run the minimum depth of ballast shall be 350mm.

(b) Increase in ballast cushion to make up the recommended depth will be carried out during complete track renewal, through sleeper renewal or programmed deep screening.

(3) On wooden sleepered road, for a distance of 50 m. outside of stop signals and at every place where steam engines are likely to stop, it is a good practice to cover the central portion of the sleepers with ballast to reduce the risk of fire.

(4) At locations where there is a change in the type of sleepers, special precaution should be taken and six rail lengths on either side of the junction should be fully boxed. Similar action should be taken for bridge and level crossing approaches.

264. Assessment of Ballast Requirements-

(1) The requirement of ballast shall be assessed separately for

(a) making good the deficiencies as existing in track,

(b) making good deficiencies arising out of overhauling, through packing and deep screening,

(c) for providing adequate cushions in the case of mechanical tamping,

(d) For providing extra cushion while converting into LWR

(2) The ballast required for maintenance purposes shall be estimated by assessing the quantity approximately if necessary by a survey, over a rail length in every 1 km. Care should be taken that the cores under the sleepers are not disturbed.

(3) In case of deep screening, assessment of ballast required for recoupment and providing standard section should be made by deep screening the ballast section to the full depth in a rail length for two to three sleepers at every V2 to 1 km. In this case screening is done under the sleepers as well.

(4) In new line construction, ballast requirements will be assessed as per the profile (to be adopted) given in Para 263 (1)

(5) The quantities assessed vide sub-Para in (2), (3) and (4) above will be the net quantities of ballast required to recoup the deficiencies or to provide required profile / sections. The above net quantities may be enhanced suitably (say 8%) to arrive at gross quantities of ballast for the purpose of procurement action in case measurements are proposed to be taken in stacks or in wagons at originating station.

265. Collection and Training out of Ballast-

The collection of ballast can either be done- (a) by resorting to alongside collection, or (b) by collecting at depots and training them out in ballast trains.

The mode of collection will have to be decided taking into account proximity of quarry, availability of good stone ballast, service roads along side the line for carrying of ballast, availability of ballast trains, the turn round of ballast trains and availability of block for unloading.

266. Depot collection of ballast - (1) Register of ballast collection and training out-The Inspector-in-charge of the depot shall maintain a register showing all transactions in respect of stone ballast, moorum and sand ballast. If the depot deals with boulders also, the same should also find a place in a register.

(2) Loading from the Depot- At all depots the following instructions should be followed :

(a) The space along the sides of the Railway siding, meant for stacking, should be divided into convenient number of zones and demarcated.

(b) For each depot, a depot diagram shall be maintained, which should indicate the site details of all the measured stacks.

(c) Each stack in each zone should be serially numbered.

(d) The operations of collecting and training out materials should not be carried out at the same time in any one zone.

(e) The ground on which the stacks are made should be selected and levelled.

(f) Where practicable, no stack should be less than one metre in height.

(g) Measurements should be taken of complete stacks. The measured stacks should be identified suitably by lime sprinkling or any other method.

(h) Before training out of Ballast or other material is undertaken on contract, a copy of each of the depot diagram should be kept with the permanent Way Inspector, the Ballast Train Guard and the Contractor, the original being with the Assistant Engineer. As each stack is lifted, this should be recorded on the depot diagram which should always be kept up-to-date. Challans should be prepared after loading the ballast into wagons.

(3) Quantity trained out - When settling accounts for training out ballast, checks should be made by comparing the quantities as per stack measurements recorded in the measurement books, with those deduced from wagon measurements as recorded in the ballast train reports, due allowance being given for sink age as per rules.

Should the wagon measurements differ from the recorded measurements by more than 5 percent, the matter should be investigated immediately and reported to the Divisional Engineer. In special cases direct measurement of ballast in wagons may be resorted to with the approval of the Chief Engineer.

267. Along side Collections (Cess Collections) - In the case of along side collections the Inspector-in-charge should maintain separate register showing the measurement of stacks as well as its disposition (Between km. to km.). The stacks should be serially numbered between the successive posts. Any entry should be made in the register whenever the stacks are removed and ballast put into the track. Record should show the place where the removed ballast has been used with the date of removal.

268. Handing over charge by Assistant Engineer - During transfer of charge of a sub division, the Assistant Engineer taking over, should satisfy himself by test checking some of the stacks at each depot and along the cess to the effect that the quantities of materials shown in the registers are correct. He should certify that this has been done by initialing each entry so checked.

269. Unloading Ballast along the line - When unloading ballast along the line care shall be taken that the heaps at the sides and the centre are clear of prescribed running dimensions.

Ballast shall not be unloaded upon signal wires or point rods. Care should be taken to ensure that no stone is left inadvertently between the stock rail and tongue rail.

270. Surplus Ballast along the line - All surplus ballast left along side the line should be collected and stacked in regular heaps and not left scattered on the slopes to be overgrown by grass and lost.

271. Ballasting New Formation - Banks should be preferably compacted in which case ballasting can be done straightaway. If compaction is not done initially, the ballast punctures the formation and ballast pockets are formed which give rise to problems in maintaining correct track geometry. On banks where track has to be laid before proper consolidation, it is desirable to use coarse sand or moorum for packing and boxing. Quarry grit and stone chips can be used if available. Ash, cinder, slag and fine and medium sand should not be used. After consolidation, the road should be opened to the bottom of the sleeper, all surplus material removed, the track raised to final level on stone ballast and packed.

ANNEXURE - 2/11 Para 263


ANNEXURE - 2/12 Para 263


ANNEXURE - 2/13 Para 263

ANNEXURE - 2/14 Para 263

ANNEXURE - 2/15 Para 263

PART - 'G' 

Track Structure on Bridges

272. Rail and rail joints on Bridges - (Advance Correction Slip No. 125 )(1) Longitudinal Profile of Rails - In standard plate girders no camber is provided. Open web girders of span 30.5 m. and above are provided with camber. Track on these bridges are laid correctly following the camber of the girder. While retimbering is done it should be ensured that the longitudinal level of rails follows the camber of girders.

(2) Rail Cant- On Bridges the rail should be laid with an inward cant of 1 in 20 by continuing the same cant as on the approaches.

(3) Rail joints over the Bridge- In the case of small bridge openings less than 6.1 m. rail joints should be avoided. For other spans, the preferred position of the rail joint is at 1/3 the span from either end.

(4) SWR on Bridges - SWR may be continued over girder bridges with unballasted decks upto 13.3 m. opening if the length of SWR is symmetrical to the centre line of bridge and upto 6.1 m. opening if the length of SWR is unsymmetrical to the centre line of the bridge. No fish-plated joint should be located on the girder or within six metres from either abutment. In all such cases rail free fastenings, such as rail screws, dog spikes or rail free clips shall be used, so that relative movement between rail and sleepers may take place.

(5) LWR/CWR on Bridges - In the case of laying LWR/CWR, provisions of LWR Manual should be followed.

(a) In the case of girder bridges (unballasted deck) LWR can be continued over bridges where overall length is not more than 20 m. In case of bridges where the overall length is between 20 and 43 m., LWR can be continued on B.G., in case the track is laid with 52 kgs. and 90-R rails under certain conditions as laid down in LWR/ Manual.

(b) LWR with rail free fastenings can be provided from pier to pier with S.E.Js. on each pier over the free end in the case of rollers on one side and rockers on other side. Box anchoring for a few sleepers should be done at the fixed end. In case of roller bearings on both sides, the central portion of the welded rails shall be box anchored on a few sleepers.

(c) LWR can be continued over a girder bridge with the provision of S.E.J. at the far end of the approach of the bridge using rail free fastenings over girder bridge. The length of the girder bridge will be restricted as per the table given in LWR Manual.

(6) Precautions for arresting Creep - Track on girder bridges with un-ballasted deck is always laid with rail free fastenings in all cases. Track on girder bridges laid with standard single rails and fish-plated joints be isolated from the SWR if existing, on approaches on either side by providing at least two well anchored Standard rail lengths. Similarly the track on the girder bridges not laid with LWR/CWR shall be isolated from LWR/CWR by a minimum length of 36 metres of well anchored SWR on either side.

273. Bridge Timbers -
(Advance Correction Slip No. 128 ) (1) Minimum requirements of depth, length and spacing-Provisions in the Schedule of dimensions, indicating the minimum length of sleeper, minimum depth of sleeper and the maximum clear distance between the sleepers for the three gauges are summarised below (nearest to 5 mm):(Advance Correction Slip No. 102 )

Note : The details are for timbers directly resting on longitudinal girders. (2) Size of Bridge Timber to be used for different Spans( B.G. and M.G.)

(a) A table showing the minimum thickness of timber for various girder spacings for B.G. and M.G. is given below (applies to sleepers of sal wood or similar timber with a permissible fibre stress of 140 kg./cm2 for sleeper width of 250 mm. in B.G. and 200 mm in M.G.) :

(3) Clear distance between joint sleepers :-The clear distance between joint sleepers should not exceed 200 mm. both for B.G. and M.G.

(4) Treatment, end-binding and dating :-(a) Treatment- Bridge sleepers should initially receive a coating of boiling coal tar before their use. Underside of the sleepers resting on girders should receive two coats. To each litre of coal tar 50 gms. of quick lime should be added. In case, this treatment has not been given in a depot, the P.W.I, should paint the sleepers with coal tar before insertion. Retiring of sleepers after insertion may be done once in five to seven years, as found necessary.

(b) End-Binding :- To prevent splitting at the ends, the sleeper ends, after being pressed, should be bound firmly with wire or hoop iron, or clamped. End bolts may be provided only when the sleepers supplied are severely split.

(c) Dating and Branding:- The year of laying sleepers should be cut or branded on each sleeper at the centre or at the end omitting the first two digits of the year. All dates shall be in one direction which in the case of double line shall be in the direction of traffic and in the case of single line, in the direction of increasing kilometrage.

(d) Cambering :- Provision of Para 272(1) shall apply. Preferably sleepers of standard thickness should be used. Where pad plates are necessary, it should be ensured that their width shall cover the full sleeper seat and hook bolts shall also pass through the pad plate.

(5) Use of Packing Plates :- Packing plates are used to make up for the difference in levels on the top boom of the girder due to cover plates, etc. These plates should be of mild steel, as thick as the cover plates, and of sufficient width to take the hook bolts. In case cover plates exist only for part width of the girder, the sleepers are to be notched to the same shape.

(6) Preparation of Timber before laying :-(a) The position of sleepers should be marked on top flange of the girder.

(b) Sleepers are numbered serially on every sleeper span-wise.

(c) For accuracy and increased output it is desirable to prepare a stand by bracing two pieces of R.S.Js. about 600 mm. long. The distance between the centres of flanges of R.S.Js. should be the same as that of the centres of the girders on the bridge.

(d) Annexure 2/16 describes the details of the method of notching to be carried out in the sleeper. The sleeper should be kept as shown in Fig. 1 and checked for rocking. Rocking should be eliminated by planning the seats of the sleepers.

(e) The position of sleeper seats should be marked on both faces of the sleepers. The sleeper should now be placed with level (non-rocking) surface on the R.S.J stand. The required depth of sleeper should be marked along with the length of the sleeper seat, as shown in Fig. 2.

(f) A notch should be made up to the depth marked as shown in Fig. 3.

(g) The notched surface should be tested with a template. The two notched bearing surfaces will be in one plane when the template sits evenly and does not rock, as shown in Fig. 4.

(h) The holes for the hook bolts should be drilled from the notched side to ensure full grip of the bolts.

(i) The new cut surface of the sleeper should be coal tarred.

(7) Laying of Sleepers:- (a) Creep should be adjusted before taking up the work of re-sleepring. Rails and old sleepers should be removed under line block.

(b) The contact surface of steel work between the sleepers and girders (top of flange under sleeper seat) should be painted after thorough scraping.

(c) Sleepers are then placed in position and with a light mallet the sleeper is hammered sufficiently for the rivet head to mark their position on the notch surface, when pad plates are not provided.

(d) The gauging or grooving is done on these marks to house the rivet heads.

(e) The sleepers should be prepared 3 mm. thicker than required and finally levels adjusted by stretching a string over the rail seats from one end of the girder to the other. A leveling instrument may be used, if necessary, to fix levels. Standard mild steel canted bearing plates with 4 rail screws should be fixed in position after tightening the hook bolts. Care should be taken to ensure that the rails on the bridge are in alignment with the approach track.

(8) Fixing up of Hook bolts - (a) there are two types of hook bolts (22 mm. dia) one with straight lip suitable for securing sleepers to plate girders and other with sloping lip for securing sleepers to R.S.Js. In both types the hook is an integral part of the bolt.

A 75x75x6 mm. mild steel square washer is used along with each hook bolt to prevent the nut from cutting into the sleeper.

(b) Two hook bolts are used for each sleeper. These hook bolts must be on the outside of the girder and not on the inside. The diameter of the hole augured should not be more than the diameter of the hook bolt. On the top end of each hook bolt there will be an arrow mark chiseled indicating the direction of the hook of the bolt. The arrow grooved on the top end of the bolt should be perpendicular (square) to the rail and pointed towards it when the hook holds the girder flange. This enables the maintenance staff to see from above and ensure that the lips of the hooks are in proper position.

274. Use of Rail Free Fastening in Girder Bridges - Rail free fastenings such as canted mild steel bearing plates with four rail screws may be used on wooden sleepers. No anti-creep bearing plates should be used. If channel sleepers are used, suitably designed canted bearing plates with rubber pads and rail free clip and bolt type of fastening should be used.

275. Provision of Guard Rails on Bridges -

(1) Location- Guard rail should be provided on all girder bridges (including priestessesed Concrete girder bridges without deck slab) whether major or minor. Guard rails should also be provided on all major and important ballasted bridges and also on such other minor bridges where derailment may cause serious damages.

On all flat top, arch and prestressed concrete girder bridges with deck slab, where guard rails are not provided the whole width of the bridge between the parapet walls shall be filled with ballast upto the top of sleeper level.

(2) Design of Guard rails - The typical arrangement of a guard rail, with the important dimensions for B.G., M.G. and N.G. are shown in the sketch and table as shown below -

The top table of the guard rail should not be lower than that of the running rail, by more than 25 mm. In the case of bridges on curves with canted track the difference should be measured with reference to a straight line connecting the running tables of inner and outer rails.

(3) Fixing of Guard rails- The ends of guard rails should be bent vertically and buried and a block of timber fixed at the end to prevent entanglement of hanging loose couplings. To ensure that guard rails are effective, they should be spiked down systematically to every sleeper with two spikes towards the centre of the track and one spike on the opposite site. Notching of the rail foot for spikes fixing the guard rails should be done on every alternate sleeper. Sleepers should be tied at both ends by MS Flats/tie bars fixed through holding down bolts.

The fixing of guard rail on concrete sleepers shall be done as shown in drawing No. RDSO/T-4088 to 4097 by proper tightening of rail screws. Provision of MS flats/tie bars for tying PRC sleepers together at ends is not required.
(Advance Correction Slip No. 102 )

(4) Splaying of Guard rails- In the case of through girder bridges on double lines, the guard rails should be splayed on both ends on both lines. In the case of bridges other than through bridges on double lines, the splaying need be done only on the facing direction of the particular line. However, the non-splayed end should be bent downwards after it is stopped at the end of the abutment and wooden block provided.

276. Provision of walkways - Over all girder bridges, footways (walkways) should be provided in the centre of track over sleepers to help the Engineering staff for inspection.
(Advance Correction Slip No. 102 )

277. Inspection and maintenance of Track on Approaches of Bridges :-
(Advance Correction Slip No. 116 )(a) For all Bridges-

(1) On the bridge approaches, sleepers with arrangement for fixing guard rails should be provided for provision of guard rails as per Para 275 above.

(2) Full complement of track fittings at bridge approaches up to 100 metres should be provided to maintain required track geometry and effort should be made to immediately recoup deficiency noticed, if any.

(3) Rail level of track in approaches of bridges should be maintained, as per provision of IRPWM under respective Para and dips in rail level immediately after abutments should be avoided. The alignment and super elevation in case of curved track should also be maintained as per provisions of IRPWM under respective Para.
(Advance Correction Slip No. 105 )

(4) Rail joints should be avoided within three metres of a bridge abutment.

(5) In case of LWR track, full ballast section as specified in LWR Manual should be provided up to 100 metres from the abutment.

(6) Switch expansion joints should be provided at the bridge approaches in LWR/CWR track as per provisions of LWR manual.

(b) For important and major bridges - In addition to Para (a) above, following should also be provided.

(1) In case of CST-9 or wooden sleeper track, concrete/steel trough sleepers with elastic fastenings should be provided up to 100m/upto full breathing length wherever LWR is provided in approach of bridge.

(2) On the bridge approaches, for a length of abut 100 metres, width of cess should be 90 cm clear of full ballast section to maintain ballast profile. For maintaining ballast section, suitable ballast retaining arrangement should also be provided.

278. Inspection and Maintenance of Track on Bridge proper - (1) Condition of track :- It should be ascertained whether it is central on the rail bearers and the main girders and in good line and level.

Departure from line is caused by incorrect seating of girders, shifting of girders laterally or lengthwise, incorrect seating of sleepers on girders or rails on sleepers, varying gauge or creep.

Departure from level is caused by errors in level of bed blocks or careless sleepering. The adequacy of clearances of running rails over ballast walls or ballast girders at the abutments and condition of timbers and fastening on the run off and skew spans should be inspected.

(2) Sleepers - The condition of sleepers and fastenings should be checked. The spacing of sleepers should not exceed the limits laid down in paras 273(1) and 273(3). Squareness of sleepers shall be ensured. Sleepers requiring renewals should be marked with paint, and renewals carried out. End bolts should be provided on sleepers which have developed end splits.

(3) Hook Bolts -Hook bolts should be checked for their firm grip. Position of arrows on top of the bolts should be at right angles to the rails pointing towards the rail. Hook bolts should be oiled periodically to prevent rusting.

(4) Creep and joint gaps should be checked and rails pulled back wherever necessary. Rail fastenings should be tight. Defective rails should be replaced. Where switch expansion joints are provided on the girder bridge, it should be ensured that free movement of the switch is not hindered.

(5) Guard rails - Adequacy of guard rail arrangements should be checked. Correct distance between the running rail and guard rail should be maintained as per the prescribed dimensions.

(6) Camber packing where provided should be in sound condition.

(7) On girder bridges adequacy of path ways for inspection should be checked.

(8) Sand bins which are provided for putting out fires should be filled with dry and loose sand.

ANNEXTURE-2/16 PARA 273(6)

PART - 'H'
Maintenance of Track in Track Circuited Area

279. Precautions to be taken while Working in Track circuited Areas- 

(1) The Permanent way inspector should instruct the staff not to place across or touching two rails in the track any tool or metal object which may cause sort circuiting. 

(2) All gauges, levels, trollys and lorries used on the track circuited length should be insulated.

(3) Steel or C.I. pipes used for carrying water/ gas under the track should be run sufficiently below the rails to prevent any short circuiting.

(4) While carrying out track maintenance, care should be taken to see that no damage of track circuit fittings like rail bonding wires, lead wires to rails, boot leg, jumper wires etc., takes place.

(5) Use of steel tapes should be avoided in track circuited section.

(6) Pulling back of rails should be done in track circuited areas in the presence of S&T staff, where signaling connections are involved.

(7) Proper drainage should be ensured so as to avoid flooding of track, during rains, particularly in yards, where watering of coaches is done and in water columns and ash pits. It would be desirable to provide washable concrete aprons on platform lines at originating stations, in track circuited areas.

(8) Ballast must be kept clean throughout the track circuited section and care should be taken to see that the ballast is kept clear of the rails and rail fastenings. The clearance from the foot of the rail should not be less than 50mm. During every packing this point should be taken note of.

280. Insulated joints - (1) Description :-Track circuited sections are 'insulated' electrically from the track on either side by insulated joints. The standard insulated joint in normal use, is made out of ordinary fish-plates duly planed on the fishing planes for accommodating channel type insulation between rails and fish-plates with ferrules/ bushes over the fish bolts and end posts between the rail ends.

Failure of insulated joints results in failure of track circuits. hence more care has to be exercised in maintenance of insulated joints.

(2) Laying and Maintenance :- (a) Insulated joints wherever provided shall be maintained as square joints. Where staggering cannot be avoided, the distance between staggered joints should not exceed the minimum wheel base of the vehicles.

(b) Rail ends of the insulated joints shall be square and true. All rough edges and burrs should be removed from bolt holes. Battered ends must be put right and the gap between the rails should be equal to the thickness of the end post.

(c) Fish bolts at the joints must be kept tight and the sleepers well packed in the vicinity of the joints.

(d) Rail ends shall be kept free from brake dust, dirt sand, rust, other foreign materials etc. All rough edges and burrs at the rail ends must be removed.

(e) The heads of dog spikes/screws should not be allowed to touch the fish-plates.

(f) Keys of anti-creep bearing plates on adjacent sleepers to the insulated joints should not be allowed to touch each other, as they may cause short circuiting.

(g) Particular care should be taken to ensure that the spikes/screws do not protrude below the sleepers.

(h) To avoid crushing of end posts of insulated joints, creep should be effectively arrested. At least one rail length on either side of the insulated joint should be provided with anti-creep devices.

(j) Rail screws should preferably be used in place of dog spikes at insulated joints.

281. Glued insulated joints - (1) General - (a) Glued insulated joints have been developed using resin adhesives. These joints consist of web-fitting fish-plates glued to the rails with a high polymer adhesive and bolted with high tensile steel bolts. The insulation is provided by special type of insulating side channels, bushes and end posts made of fiber glass cloth ravings.

(b) In all future works of Track circuiting Glued insulated joints which have better insulation qualities should preferably be provided in place of standard insulated joints.

(c) The instructions for Fabrication, installation and Maintenance of Glued insulated rail joints as given in the "Manual for Glued Insulated Rail joints, 19981 issued by RDSO, should be strictly followed.

(2) Maintenance of Glued Insulated Joints:

(a) The joint normally does not need any special maintenance other than that required for normal track.

(b) The ballast used in track in the vicinity of glued insulated joints shall be clean to ensure efficient packing and drainage. Care should be taken to see that the ballast is clear of rails and rail fastenings. The clearance from underside of the rail must not be less than 50mm.

(c) As in the case of standard insulated joints, the metal burrs at the end of the rails shall be removed well in time to avoid short circuiting, without damaging end posts.

(d) In the glued joints, normally no relative movement occurs between rails and fish-plates. In case, failure of joints occur by separation of rail, fish-plate surfaces, with consequent relative movement, the damaged glued joint snail be replaced.

(e) It shall be ensured that live cinders which can cause damage to glued insulated joints are removed from the vicinity of joints. At locations prone to such droppings, provision of protective boxes of asbestos or other material of suitable design may be thought of.

PART - 'J'

Maintenance in Electrified Areas

282. General Instructions to staff - (1) General Knowledge of Engineering Staff- (a) Every engineering official working in electrical traction area shall be in possession of a copy of rules framed for the purpose of the operation of the Traction Power Distribution system pertaining to Engineering Department and ensure that staff working under him are also acquainted with the rules. He will ensure that rules pertaining to carrying out engineering works are strictly observed.

(b) All electrical equipment, every power line or cable shall be regarded as being 'live' at all times. No work shall be commenced adjacent to any electrical equipment except on authority issued in writing by a competent official of the Electrical Department to the effect that the equipment has been made dead and earthed.

(2) Defects in a Overhead Equipment:-Defects or break-downs in the overhead equipment including track and structure bonds noticed by the Engineering staff shall be reported immediately to the Traction Power Controller. When defects in the overhead equipment that are likely to cause damage to pantographs or trains, are noticed and it is not possible to convey information to Station Masters or signalmen to enable them to issue caution orders, the line shall be protected by the staff noticing such defects according to General Rule 3.62.

(3) Traction Bonds - In electrified areas the return current fully or partially flows through the rail. To ensure a reliable electrical circuit continuity and also to ensure proper earthing in case of leakage of current, various types of traction bonds as described below are provided at suitable places and maintained by the Electrical Traction Department.—

(a) Longitudinal Rail Bonds - In the case of D.C. traction system, practically the whole return current flows through the rail. Therefore, two flexible copper bonds offering minimum resistance to the flow of current are provided at each rail joint under the fish-plates. Two solid lugs at the two ends of the copper bonds are inserted in holes drilled at the two rail ends between the fish bolt holes and are pressed by using a bend press to rivet them firmly to the rail. On points and crossings and at junction fish-plates where continuity bonds of the above type can not be provided due to space constraint, continuity of return current path is achieved by using mild steel straps or G.I. wire ropes.

Absence of such bonds may cause unsafe working condition and in extreme cases may
damage the rail ends.

(b) Cross Bonds (D.C.) :- Cross bonds are provided between adjacent tracks at regular intervals to reduce resistance of the current to the minimum. Such cross bonds are also known as transverse bonds.

(c) Structure Bonds .-All structures supporting overhead equipment either in A.C or D.C. track circuited areas are connected to the running rails for ensuring good earthling. Failure of insulator or leakage of current switches off the supply from the sub-station so that men coming in contact with supporting structure etc. do not get electric shock. Removal or tampering of such bonds can, therefore, result in unsafe conditions. Since the structures are grouted in concrete, they are likely to become charged in case such bonds are kept disconnected. Similarly other steel structures such as foot-over bridges, sheds, etc., in the vicinity of O.H.E. lines are also connected to rails through similar structure bonds.

283. Special Instructions To Staff Working In Traction Area -

(1) Need for Precautions - Precautions are required to be taken on account of following :—

(a) Proximity of a Live Conductor-The risk of direct contact with live O.H.E. is ever present while working in electrified sections such as for painting of steel work of through spans of bridges and platform cover.

(b) Build up of potential due to return current in rails. - The return current in the rails may cause a potential difference -

(i) Between rail and the surrounding mass of earth.

(ii) Between two ends of a fractured rail, 

(iii) Between the two rails at an insulated joint.

(iv) Between earth and any other metallic mass.

(2) The following precautions should, therefore, be taken while working in traction areas :-

(a) No work shall be done within a distance of two metres from the live parts of the O.H.E. without a 'permit-to-work'.

(b) For work adjacent to overhead equipment the Engineering Inspector shall apply to the proper authority sufficiently in advance for sanctioning the traffic and power block required.

The Traction Power Controller through Traction Foreman will arrange to isolate and earth the section concerned on the date and at the time specified in consultation with the Traffic Controller. He shall then issue 'permit-to-work' to the Engineering Inspector. On completion of the work the 'Permit-to-work' should be cancelled and Traction Power Controller advised, who will then arrange to remove the earth and restore power supply.

(c) "No part of the tree shall be nearer than 4 mtrs from the nearest live conductor. Any tree or branches likely to fall on the live conductor should be cut or trimmed periodically to maintain the safety clearances. The responsibility for wholesale cutting of the trees, i.e. cutting of tree trunks, will rest with the Engineering Department. In the electrified territories, however, the cutting of the trees shall be done by the Engineering Department in the presence of authorized TFD staff to ensure safety and satisfactory completion of the work. The day to day trimming of the tree branches, wherever required, to maintain the 4 m safety clearances from OHE shall be done by the authorized TRD staff and Supervisors.

In case of dispute, the decision whether to cut or trim a tree, shall be taken through a joint inspection of Engineering and Electrical officials.

The modalities to be adopted for cutting / trimming of the trees i.e. contractually or departmentally, may be decided by the respective departments based on local conditions. Accountal and disposal of trees cut wholesale will be done by the Engg. Deptt. While the disposal of the trimmed tree branches will be the responsibility of the TRD Department. The expenditure for cutting / trimming of trees to maintain safe clearance for OHE, shall be debited to revenue grant of TRD Department."

(d) No fallen wire or wires shall be touched unless power is switched off and the wire or wires suitably earthed. In case the wires drop at a level crossing, the Gatekeeper shall immediately make arrangements to stop all road traffic.

(e) Work on Station roofs and Signal Gantries.-Staff working on station roofs and signal gantries and similar structures adjacent to Live Overhead

Equipment shall not use any measuring tapes, tools and materials when there is a possibility of their being dropped or carried by wind on to the live overhead equipment.

(f) Earth work - For excavation work adjacent to tracks, the following action is taken :-

(i) In D. C. traction areas, intimation should be given in writing sufficiently in advance to the concerned Traction Distribution Officer to enable him to depute the Traction staff to be present in order to prevent possible damage to the traction underground feeder cables witch are always located near the running lines.

(ii) In A. C. traction areas, intimation should be given to the concerned officers of the Electrical General services and also S.&T. Department, since all the S. & T. and Electrical lines are cabled on account of Electrical Induction.

In all A. C. and D. C. traction areas, cable markers showing location of cables are provided by the Traction Department. In addition, the cables are protected by tiles and bricks, and during excavation if workmen come across such tiles or bricks in an arranged manner, they should at once report the matter to the higher officials. Any further excavation should be carried out only in the presence of the authorized staff of Electrical Traction and or S. & T. Department as the case may be.

(g) Alteration to Tracks - The relative alignments of the centreline of the track with respect to the alignment of the contact wire must be maintained within the specified tolerances. This applies to both horizontal and vertical clearances. Slewing or lifting of track must not be done outside the agreed maintenance limits, unless the position of the contact wire is altered at the same time. Adjustment of cant has a magnified effect of the horizontal displacement of the centreline of the track with respect to the alignment of the contact wire.

Horizontal clearances to structures within the limits laid down in the Schedule of Dimensions must be maintained. For Slewing or alterations to track involving adjustment of contact wire (outside the agreed maintenance limits) sufficient notice should be given to the traction staff so that they arrange to adjust the overhead equipment.

(h) Alterations to Track bonding :- All bonds removed by the staff of the Engineering Department shall be replaced by the staff of the Engineering Department and all such removals and replacements shall be reported to the Assistant Electrical Engineer, Traction Distribution in-charge, concerned without delay.

(j) Working of Cranes :- No crane shall be worked except on the authorized 'permit-to-work'. In every case of working a crane, arrangement should be made for the presence of authorized overhead equipment staff to ensure that all safety precautions are taken.

(k) Inspection of Tunnels :- For inspection of roofs and sides of a tunnel, the overhead equipment shall be rendered 'dead'. Special insulated apparatus should be used if sounding the unlined portions to locate loose rock in the roof and sides, is required to be carried out, when the overhead equipment is 'live'.

(I) As far as possible closed wagons shall be used for material trains. In case open or hopper wagons are used, loading and unloading of such wagons in electrified tracks shall be done under the supervision of an Engineering Official not below the rank of a Permanent Way Mistry, who shall personally ensure that no tool or any part of body of the workers comes within the 'danger zone' i.e., within 2m. of O.H.E.

(m) Steel tapes or metallic tapes with woven metal reinforcement should not be used in electrified tracks. Linen tapes are safer and, therefore, should be used even though they are not accurate.

(n) The top foundation blocks in electrified structures should be kept clear of all materials.

284. Maintaining continuity of track - (1) During maintenance or renewal of track, continuity of the rails serving electrified tracks shall invariably be maintained. For bridging gaps which may be caused during removal of fish-plates or rails, temporary metallic jumpers of approved design shall be provided as under. The necessary jumper will be provided by the Electrical Department on requisition.

(2) In case of rail fracture, the two ends of the fractured rail shall be first temporarily connected by a temporary metallic jumper of approved design (as shown in the sketch below). In all cases of discontinuity of rails, the two parts of the rail shall not be touched with bare hands; Gloves of approved quality shall be used.

(3) In the case of track renewals temporary connection shall be made as shown in annexure 2/17.

(4) In the case of defective or broken rail bond, a temporary connections shall be made as shown in sub-Para [2] above.

(5) Before fish-plates are loosened or removed temporary connection shall be made in as in sub-Para [3] above.

285. Catch Sidings - Normally all catch sidings except those which are sanded shall be kept alive. On sanded catch siding, the rails shall be kept clear of sand for a length of 21.5 metres, beyond the section insulators in the overhead lines and the switches controlling the sanded catch sidings shall be kept in the neutral position. If an electric engine or single or multiple unit train runs into the sanded length of a catch siding, it may possibly be insulated from earth except through the buffers or couplings of  connected to other vehicles, therefore these sidings shall not be made alive when an electric engine or single or multiple unit train or any vehicle coupled thereto are standing in the sanded tracks until all staff have been moved away from positions where they are likely to make contact between the permanent way formation and any part of the locomotive or single or multiple unit train or coupled vehicles. No person shall attempt to enter, or leave or in any other way make contact between the permanent way formation and the electric engine or single or multiple unit train or any vehicles coupled thereto while the overhead equipment of the sanded length of siding is alive.

286. Additional precautions in A. C. Traction area -The following additional precautions are required to be taken in A. C. traction areas:-

(1) Build-up of potential due to induction in metallic bodies situated close to O.H.E. - It is important to note that dangerous voltages may be induced in metallic masses such as fencing posts in the vicinity of traction conductors. To avoid possibility of shock due to such voltages, the metallic structures are bonded together and earthed.

(2) Unloading of rails - When unloading rails along tracks, care shall be taken to ensure that rails do not touch each other to form a continuous metallic mass of length greater than 300 metres.

(3) Permanent way staff are advised to keep clear of the tracks and avoid contact with the rails when an electrically hauled train is within 250 m.

287. Fire in electrified areas - The Permanent Way Officials noticing a fire likely to result in loss of life or cause damage to property shall take all possible steps to prevent it from spreading and to extinguish it. In case the fire is on adjacent to any to electrified equipment the permanent way official shall make no attempt to extinguish the fire but shall report the occurrence of fire to the nearest Station Master by most expeditious means.

288. Permanent way Tools - Permanent Way tools (insulated and uninsulated) along with gloves shall be used in manner as approved by the Chief Engineer of the railway.

289. Treatment of persons suffering from Electric shock - When persons receive electric shock, practically in every case they can be revived with prompt application of First-Aid.

Method of Resuscitation.- The method of resuscitation resorted to should be that known as artificial respiration.

Continuity of Treatment-The efforts to restore breathing must be continued regularly and with perseverance, and must not be discontinued until a Doctor has taken charge of the case.

290. Accident to power lines of outside bodies- The Engineering Inspector shall be in possession of the name and address of the officer-in-charge of each power line across Railway land to enable an immediate report of any defect or accident appertaining thereto being made, under advice to the Assistant Engineer/Divisional Engineer.




PART - 'K'

Treatment of Formation

 291- Classification of Formation Requiring Treatment - Formation requiring treatment shall be categorized as under-

(a) Very bad -Where either speed restrictions are imposed on this account or number of normal attentions to track in a year is more than 12.

(b) Bad - Where the number of normal attentions to track is between 6 to 12 in a year.

292. Nature of Formation Problems - In such stretches, the track levels get disturbed frequently causing problems in track maintenance. These problems are attributable to -

(a) Excessive or uneven settlement of banks.

(b) Slope and the failure of soil leading to slips, heaving beyond the toe, creep or bulging of slopes.

(c) Ballast penetration and mud pumping of poor sub grade material.

(d) Swelling and shrinkage of expansive soils in fills such as black cotton soil.

293. Site Investigations - The following data should be collected for determining the type of treatment to the formation :-

   (a) History of the affected section -

•  Period when constructed;

•  Method of construction;

•  Date of opening to traffic;

•  Subsoil bank settlements;

•  Slips if any; and

•  Speed restrictions on formation account.

   (b) Site details -

•  Bank heights;

•  Depth of cutting;

•  Nature of existing slopes (Turfed or not, with or without berms);

•  Drainage conditions;

•  Stagnation of water;

• Condition and proximity of borrow pits;

• Signs of movement and bulging in the slopes;

• Ground water level and its position during rains.

(c) Number of attentions to track - The particulars of the number of attentions to track should be obtained from gang charts for the last five years, to get an idea about track maintainability. Man-days utilised for maintenance per Km should also be collected vis-a-vis men required for normal maintenance.

(d) Ballast penetration profiles-These profiles should be obtained at regular intervals of one telegraph post/O.H.E. mast, to indicate the extent of ballast penetration and condition of ballast (loose, caked, mixed with cinder/sand moorum etc.)

(e) Exact nature of present troubles -The exact nature of the present trouble should be identified whether it is due to -

• Bulging of ballast between cribs or at the cess;

• Mud pumping;

• Slope movement;

• Slope failure; etc.

294. Soil investigations and testing - (1) Soil investigation - (a) Undisturbed soil samples should generally be collected at every telegraph post/ O.H.E. mast. Undisturbed soil samples in 100mm. sampling tubes should be collected from the following places as necessary :-

(i) From the formation below the depth upto which the ballast has penetrated.

(ii) From inside the bank along the probable circle through which the slip has occurred, where the bank has been found to be structurally unstable.

(iii) From various depths below the ground level at the toe of the bank, where base failures/settlements have occurred.

(iv) From two sections in the slipped portion and one section at the toe adjoining the site where slip has not occurred in the past (Annexure2/18).

(b) Two cross sections of the bank in both the sections should also be taken by means of precise levelling.

(c) In addition to this, disturbed soil samples should also be collected at regular intervals of a telegraph post/O.H.E. mast, to determine the index properties of the formation soil.

(2) Soil Testing - Selected undisturbed/ disturbed soil samples should be tested at the soil Mechanics Laboratory, to determine the following properties :-

(a) Index properties viz., grain size analysis and Atterrberg limits (i.e., L.L, P.L,S.L).

(b) Natural moisture content and natural dry density.

(c) Optimum moisture content and optimum dry density.

(d) Shear property.

(e) Differential free swell.

For banks which are structurally weak/ unstable, the shear property of the soil sample is very important and sufficient number of samples must be tested so as to get an accurate idea of the shear strength of the bank soil and soil strata below ground level.

For banks where settlement has occurred, consolidation test should also be carried out.







295. Remedial measures suggested - Based on the site investigations and soil testing, the relevant remedial measures should be formulated.
Some of the remedial measures suggested for the formation troubles generally encountered are listed below:

R.D.S.O.'s help, wherever necessary, may be taken for formulating the remedial measures.